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針對2016年5月22日口語預測超級小范圍(18題)

2016-05-18 17:06

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口語第一題

2013.6.15ML/2011.5.28ML/2010.4.24NA 

TASK1 上過的兩個學校,解釋兩個學校的區別。

NO.7

2011.9.25ML/2010.11.6NA

1.Describe why organizing time is challenging for university students and why it is important?

2014.4.19ML

task 1:

Talk about an important decision that you have made. Explain in detail why this decision was important to you.

2015.1.31ML

s1

Which one of the following would you like to do on the weekend: stay with your family, go to the gym, or watch TV?

2012.4.22ML

Task 1

If your friend is dropping out of the college, would you consider it a good thing?

2013.3.22NA

1:

 Which of the following Art classes would you be more interested in taking? Wood Sculpture, Painting or Photography?

三選一,可以學一樣art,選哪樣? wood sculpture; painting; 攝影;

2010.8.13NA 

口語一:                    

你有個哥們要面試了,他問你要ADVICE啊,你覺得他怎么樣才能成功哇?

2011.11.20ML 

口語一:你認為哪個時期是最困難的:童年時期,青少年時期,成年時期?Which period do you think is most difficult: childhood, teenager oradulthood?

2012.2.18NA2011.11.26ML/2009.9.11NA

S1

你住的國家面臨的問題... 翻譯的不知道對不對 原題似乎是" explain your country's problem or OOXX

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口語一:描述一個你喜歡與之聊天的人。

Describe a person whom you would like to talk with often (this person could be one of your close friends, family members or teachers). Explain why you would like to talk with this person and what you would talk about?

2010.3.13ML

1

What are some important effects of the worldwide availability of Internet on modern people's lives? Use specific details and examples to support your response.

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task1:

How would you advise somebody who was planning to come to your country to study abroad? Give details and examples to support your response. Begin your response after the beep.

2011.12.18ML

1.你朋友next semester要上一個很難的math class,他很緊張,問你有沒有什么建議給他

2009.9.19NA

口語一:                    

版本一:日常生活depend on 比較多的tool, object…        

版本二:最喜歡的科目是什么

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

S1

如果有計劃來一次旅游,你會選擇哪里

2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

1

Which technology has made the greatest impact on people's lives in your country: airplanecomputer or television? Use specific reasons and examples to support your response.   

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口語一,Describe the greatest period of your life and explain why.

2012.10.19ML

1

Choose a job lawyer, animal doctor, restaurant owner, which on you prefer

2012.10.19ML2010.6.13ML

Task 1

朋友搬家了,讓你give advice about how to make friends in a new city

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

下面哪種職業你喜歡?律師(lawyer),餐館老板(restaurant owner),獸醫(animal doctor)

Which of the following would you rather be? Lawyer, veterinarian or restaurant owner. Explain your answer in details.

2008.5.10ML

口語一:描述一個你狠崇拜但你不會選擇作為自己職業的工作。describe a job you admired but you will NOT choose it yourself

2014.9.13NA 

1

Talk about your favorite book when you were a child. Explain in details why you liked to read it.

2014.9.27NA 

Task1:

if you have a chance to learn new things, what do you want to learn? Select one of the following and explain your ides: 1. play a sport 2. fly a plane 3. play a new instrument

2013.12.14NA

口語一:從三個職員制工作volunteer work選一個。工作一能夠幫助圖書館中人用電腦查書籍,工作二把書讀給小孩聽,工作三把書和雜志整理到書架上

2013.9.28NA

Task1:

Nowadays many people move to cities for work and study. What advantages do moving to cities bring to people?

2011.3.26ML

1

Describe a time when you learned a new subject.

2014.11.29ML

"1.

Among studying, exercising, and going shopping, which one would you like to do alone and why

2012.12.1NA 

1

給三個方案,問你選擇哪個,為啥。1. 一個recycle program2.教小孩子種菜, 3.教小孩子怎么吃飯更健康。

2013.10.25NA

口語一:1、 學校組織學生去社區做公益活動,其中有三項任務可選,1)清潔那些littertransh2)在公園種樹和花, 3)給小朋友們講環保知識什么的。

2013.10.19NA

口語一:

If you can have a part-time job at the university what position would you choose? A lab assistant, a campus tour guide or a library assistant? Why?

2013.12.28ML   

口語一,Describe a memorable experience in a restaurant or cafe.

2010.3.20NA

1

描述一個參加過的活動,你是否認為每個人都have a good time

2014.8.9NA

1

Imagine that you have to stop using cell phone for a month, would that be difficult for you?

2013.5.26ML

TASK1Your friend has been offered a job that's far away from his hometown. Do you think he should take it or not? Give specific reasons and details to support your response.

2011.6.25ML

1

Describe a news article or a story that you are interested in recently. And explain why you think it was interesting. (Include reasons and details in your response.)

2014.7.26NA

1. Which one will you learn: play a piano, swim, or repair a car?

2014.2.28NA  

Task 1: Your community center now offers classes on the weekends for free. Which of the following class you will choose to take? Give reason to explain your choose. 1) A financial course to help you manage money, 2) Car maintenance and repair 3) Review of Latin-American music.

2014.4.5NA  

S1

Students attend different clubs in universities, such as science club, hiking club, etc. Which one are you interested in?

2014.4.12NA  

口語一:                    

Describe one benefit of using the internet?          

版本二

Talk about how cellphone has changed people's lives. Explain your answer in details.

2014.6.28NA

Task1:

有一大堆事情需要做,怎么辦

2014.8.30NA

TASK1

If one of your friends is always late for events and appointments, can you give some suggestion and advice to help him not be late next time?

2014.9.6NA

TASK1

1.Describe an important decision that you have made.

2014.9.27NA

1,自己和別人不一樣的學習方法。

2014.10.17NA

Task1;

Please choose one of the following transportations that you consider the most enjoyable to ride: a bicycle, an automobile, or a train.

2014.11.8NA  

1. Please describe one characteristic of a house or apartment that you think will make it a good place to live.

2014.11.29NA  

1.

Among study, exercise, and shopping, which one would you like to do alone and why?

2014.12.19NA  

1. The university provides three kinds of service to students:

- Concerts performed by students

- Drama played by theatre students

- Lecture given by a well-known professor

Which one do you prefer? Use details and examples to explain.

2013.6.8NA

1

Which of the following do you think it's the best way to get to know a new school: joining a one-day campus tour, spending a weekend on the campus play field, or auditing lectures?

2013.11.22NA

口語一:版本一:Talk about what you like to do during spare time.Give specific reasons and details in your explanation.               

版本二:Your friend has a bad eating habit.What suggestions would you like to give the friend?

2013.12.20NA

口語一:city should invest money in 1) transportation, 2) park, 3) can't recall, sorry

口語第二題

2015.1.31ML

S2

Do you agree or disagree that children should learn to draw or paint

2012.4.22ML

Task 2

Do you agree or disagree that assignments handed in after the deadline should receive a lower score?

2013.3.22NA

2:

選擇participate in activities alone or with a team or group.

2011.11.20ML 

口語二:你同意富人應當幫助窮人這種觀點嗎?Do you agree that wealthy people should be required to help poor people?

2012.9.8ML/2011.3.11NA 

Task 2
Some people think students should study in classroom. While others believe that they should visit museum and zoo to study. Which one do you like?

Task2:
Some students prefer to study in a library. Others prefer to study at home or in dormitories. Which way do you prefer and why? Include reasons and details in your response.

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口語二:你同意參與課堂討論能使學生學到更多這個觀點嗎?

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Participating in class discussions makes students learn more. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

2010.3.13ML

2

Some students prefer to go to universities or colleges in their hometown. Others prefer to go to universities or colleges in new cities or towns. Which do you prefer and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task2:

Do you think that people will read fewer books in the future than they do today? Give details and examples to support your response. Begin your response after the beep.

2013.4.27NA

2 If you have time, would you choose to learn to play a new musical instrument or learn to play a new sport?

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

s2

高中畢業后,有些選擇直接進入大學深造,有些要take a break, 你會選擇哪個, 陳述理由

2010.1.30NA 

2

你是否覺得it is important to study the hist0ry from ancestors

2009.9.19NA

口語二:                  

做事是喜歡剛開始就準備還是到了due day才開始準備,原因

2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

2

Some people believe that it is better for children to grow up in big cities. Others believe that it is better for children to grow up in small towns or rural areas. What is your opinion and why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your response.

2012.10.19ML2010.6.13ML

Task 2

Some think robots are useful in the future. Some think robots will never be more useful and smarter than human.   Which do you agree

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

2

some answer the phone and text a message in the middle of the conversation, what do thing this behavior, good or not

2008.5.10ML

口語二:周末是喜歡呆在家里看書搞學習還是喜歡social vs friends relax.

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task2:

Some students prefer to study in a library. Others prefer to study at home or in dormitories. Which way do you prefer and why? Include reasons and details in your response.

2013.12.14NA

口語二:選一個,幫助教授完成重要科研任務還是參加你姐姐的生日派對

2014.9.27NA 

Task2:

do you agree that parents put more pressure on students in school than ever before

2013.9.28NA

Task2:

Nowadays many people move to cities for work and study. What advantages do moving to cities bring to people?

2011.3.26ML

2

Some people prefer to read or watch news every day. Other people prefer to read or watch news less regularly. Which do you prefer

2014.11.29ML

2.

Some people believe the government should invest money in a program designed to save and protect endangered species of animals. Others believe that money for such programs should only come from private sources. Which point of view do you agree with?

2012.12.1NA 

2

Question: Which do you prefer: an interesting class but very strict with scoring or a boring class that gives you high scores?

2011.10.14NA

2

大城市是否禁止私家車?

2013.12.28ML   

口語二,Do you agree or disagree with the statement that the most important class can't be learned in the classroom?

2010.3.20NA

Task 2

  2.你是否會一直表達你的真實意見,即便你知道這個意見可能不被認同。key words: honest opinion.

  2. it is always good to keep honesty?

  2,別人不同意你還堅持說實話嗎

2014.8.9NA     

2

Some people think that business and industry need to be developed, even if the development of them affect environment; other people think that environment need to be protected from the development of business and industry. What do you think?

2013.10.19NA 

口語二:

Some people speak out in class, others prefer to listen and quietly observe. Which do you think leads to greater success in school? Why?

2011.6.25ML

2

Some students prefer to take a test where they must write an essay to a question. Other students prefer to take a test with objective questions. Which type of exam question do you prefer? Give reasons and examples in your explanation.

2013.5.26ML

TASK2Do you agree or disagree that teachers should encourage students to have discussions during class? Give specific reasons and details in your response.

2014.7.26NA

2.technology devices distance people far more now than before.lz 本來準備的是shorten,原以為題目也是shorten,最后發現是想法的,但是都已經表達了觀點。所以就即興發揮了。希望不要太差。

2014.2.28NA  

Task 2: Do you agree or disagree the following statement and give reasons: Parents should not allow their children to participate any form of sport (football, basketball, ice hockey...) in order to protect their health from any form of injury.

2014.4.5NA  

S2

Finding a place to live near campus. Option 1: a house to share with several other students; Option 2: an apartment to live alone.

2014.4.12NA  

口語二:                  

 版本一:現代人的生活方式比一百年前的人的生活方式健康?

Do you agree with the statement: it is easier for people today to lead a healthy life than people of 100 years ago.             

版本二:

When traveling, do you prefer to stay at one place for a long time or spend less time but visit more places? Explain your answer in details.

2014.6.28NA

Task2:

Do you like to go to the city or the countryside for vacation?

2014.8.30NA

TASK2

2.Which one you think is better: Some teachers want students to sit in the same seats throughout the whole semester. Other teachers think students can choose their own seats each time and sit in different seats. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

2014.9.6NA

TASK2

2.Some schools require music and art classes, while some don’t. What is your opinion?

2014.9.27NA

2,喜歡去小商場還是大商場。

2014.10.17NA

Task2;

Do you agree or disagree that in the future, people will read fewer books than they do today.

2014.11.8NA  

2. People are more likely to enjoy themselves at concerts or films if they go with a group of friends.

2014.11.29NA  

2.

 Some people believe the government should invest money in program designed to save and protect endangered species of animal. Others believe that money for such programs should only come from private sources. Which point of view do you agree with?

2013.6.8NA

2

If you were given an empty piece of land, would you rather use it to build a garden or a playground for children?

2013.6.22NA

2

你喜歡一個經常出差的工作還是總在一個地方的工作。

2013.12.20NA

口語二:people who live in small town is nicer than those who live in big city, agree with disagree

2013.11.22NA

口語二:版本一:Some students like to learn by themselves,others prefer to share their ideas with others.Which one do you prefer?

版本二:Some people like to share their thoughts through publications like newspapers and blogs,others prefer to only share them with friends.Which one do you prefer

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口語二:People are never too late to receive university education to get a degree. Do you agree or disagree the above statement? Include reasons and examples to support your response.

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

Some people prefer to learn from people and events in the pasts. Others prefer to learn from current people and events. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.

2011.5.28NA 

Do you prefer to write a long essay or give a speech in front of class for an assignment?

2013.1.18NA

2 Do you agree or disagree: people should always tell the truth?

依情況而定(1)有時應該(2)有時不應該

2013.1.26NA

2

一個出差多但銀子多的工作,一個不需要經常出差,但是銀子少的工作,你選哪一個

口語第三題

2013.7.14ML

TASK3  

Reading: The univeristy is planning a new writing center to

1) help students organize their thoughts in order to get better grades

2) foster abilities related to actual jobs   

Listening: Our plan for the center   

1) The professors are usually busy and have no time to help students with improving their writing. The new center can do that.

2) The center is good for editing student writing and for helping them discover career options in the future.

2014.4.19ML

3

一學生寫信申請圖書館讓用手機cellphone,女生反對,理由1:低聲說話對方聽不見,大聲勢必noise理由2:急事可以出去打電話,check message

2015.1.31ML

T3

The student proposes the university should open a snack shop on campus that is entirely operated by students because it will help to create jobs for students and be convenient for students to buy food.

The man agrees with him.

First, it helps students gain the experience of running a business.

Second, the current café is far away from the school building. It takes a lot of time to buy a cup of coffee or a sandwich. What's more, it also takes at least 15 minutes to drive to the café.

2013.3.22NA

3:是學生寫了一封信提議學校Improve library,集中兩個方面,一個是增加可以查書的電腦;另一個是add faculties

男生表示很支持。第一很多學生在圖書館發郵件做research, 要排隊才能用上電腦look up books.第二 這些faculties都是學生可以增加工作機會。

2010.8.13NA 

口語三:                          

PETER給學校寫信,說,那個DINING HALL前面的草坪因為SPORTS都要光光了,太不美觀了吧!快點禁止學生在上面活動吧!禁止也不會有啥不便的哇,想活動去GYM唄。

對話:

MAN: 你咋看待介問題啊?

WOMAN:切,這樣做根本木有用處。

MAN: 咋咧?

WOMAN:這個問題并不主要是SPORTS造成的啊,大家去上課為了節約時間都不走大道走草坪,那當然完了完了滴啦!你說你禁止SPORTS有個啥用。

MAN: 你說的也對噢!

WOMAN:而且大家活動都是在課間的時候,GYM那么那么遠,難得跑唄。

MAN: 嗯哦,課間只有 10-15分鐘。

2011.11.20ML 

   口語三:A student proposal suggests the university creating a lunge for commuter students.

  Boy說沒必要,因為不只是commuter students,大部分學生的dorm也很遠,他們也隨身帶著所有要用的東西

而且commuters學生不用去lunge bus schedule什么的,他們可以用電腦上網到 station website獲取schedule

2009.8.2ML/2008.1.18NA 

S3

Reading: a new cafe near the library.

 

Listening: 男的說好。

 

1)有了cafe which is just 20 minute's walk,他就可以去圖書館學習,然后花很短的時間吃個飯,再返回去學習了。

 

2it is good for ""group project""(原話).圖書館里學習都不能討論,需要安靜,但是在cafe就可以大家討論。他說有了cafe就可以大家現在圖書館學習,然后meet in the cafe討論一會兒,然后再back to the lib學習。

2012.9.8ML/2011.3.11NA 

Task 3

【學生寫信】

學生寫信建議學校應該在新生開學之前,給他們future roommatecontact information: email和電話。

好處1:可以讓新生們早點互相認識,先交朋友。

好處2:可以plan到時候帶去的東西,以免帶重。 【學生態度】:女生贊成。

理由1:能讓學生在進學校之前就和自己的future roommate聯系,這樣進學校就不會太生疏,能感覺舒服點兒;

理由2:能讓學生提前和自己的future roommate商量帶什么東西,因為學校的宿舍很小,如果帶了很多行李stuff, 就放不下了。舉例說自己和室友每人帶了個小冰箱,宿舍里放不開,如果先聯系,就可以避免類似情況出現。

Question: Explain the woman’s opinion and why she holds that opinion.

2012.2.18NA2011.11.26ML/2009.9.11NA

s3

是講一個學校推出了一個新的annoucementfreshman, Biology department. 說學生一起學習(group study)可以best know the equviment and improve acdemec study, and in addtion, can meet and make new friends.

However, in the conversation, the girl said the study group sort of thing doesnt help. Because people have their own way to study, expect thoes who doesnt know how to study. So she prefers to work alone.

the second point is that she thinks that if people in the same department, they will have class together, so they eventually will meet each other. So you dont really need to go to the study group.

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口語三 :學校規定大一新生first year students不能在校內用車keep their cars on campus。一個學生給校報信說學校應允許大一新生在校內用車。理由1、大一學生到校外find part-time jobs要用車,沒車找工作不方便。理由2、大一學生想家get homesick的時候,周末要開車drive回很遠的家探親。沒車回家不方便。                     

女生反對此提議。理由1、大一新生課業負擔重have a lot of school work to do,沒有額外時間do part-time jobs。如果開車就容易找到工作,if they do part-time jobs, they might not do well in school。理由2、如果大一新生一想家get homesickthey might go home every weekend,他們就沒有足夠時間與新同學相處,很難適應大學生活learn how to socialize with other people

2013.4.27NA

3是一個學生向學校寫信說允許學生在學校停車,原因是不允許學生停車,學生會不方便;學校建設新的停車場解決停車難問題。女生反對,原因:第一,學校外有bus stationtaxi station;第二,原有的空地準備建設新的實驗室。

2011.12.18ML

3.一個學生提議要把campus dining hall移到Outdoor去因為可以解決crowded的問題還可以享受lawn上的好天氣

男生說我against it,這只是一個temporaryproblem

-因為campus最近的另外一個dining hallrenovating所以才crowded,等幾個星期過去裝修好了就不會crowded

-很多人在草地上kick soccer ballPlay Frisbee. 男生幽默的說:你在草地上吃飯,說不定一個soccer ball會踢到你的沙拉里。(我聽到這就笑了)

2010.1.30NA 

3

文章內容: 學校出公告要建一個housing office for off-campus.

對話: 女生同意覺得很好.原因:1)on-campusdorm已經overcrowded.

2)是新生不熟悉本地環境.這個office正好幫助他們.問總結女生觀點。

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

s3

閱讀:學校決定讓新生在入學前提前做一些以后會做的作業, 主要是文學方面的.

  學校理由1: 學生預先掌握一下寫作技巧有助于大學學習, 教授也可以不用在這些基礎技能上停留太多時間, 進而傳授更多知識

  學校理由2: 學生預先閱讀的一些東西可以成為他們入學后的共同話題,從而促進交流, 廣交朋友

聽力:男生反對理由:

  1): 大部分學生在假期里面時間比較少, 比如有工作(我理解是實習),所以無法完成這些閱讀任務. 而一旦完不成, 開學就要struggle to catch up, 有時不得不rush, 結果就skip文章, 囫圇吞棗

2): 新生不會談論文學, 他們更喜歡聊熟悉有趣的話題,such as some cool places to hang out.

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task3:

學校準備建一個art building。女生同意,因為可以容納更多的學生上課,她去年選課就選不上,還有更大的screen看老師show pictures and sculptures可以更清晰。

  解析:

  閱讀材料:學校要建(build)一個art building

  聽力材料:女生態度,同意(agree, for…)

  理由一:可以容納(accommodate)更多學生,女生舉例去年就因為空間小選課沒有選上。

  理由二:可以有更大的screen,這樣看老師show pictures and sculptures可以更清晰(clearer)

按照以上主線將聽力材料組織完全即可。

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口語三,閱讀里面說學生建議取消讀詩會,因為很少有人參加,而且可以從圖書館借CD來聽。聽力里女生不同意,因為現在讀詩會只會在網站上發通知,如果他們能在教室、圖書館和學生中心還有報紙這些其他形式上也加以通知,肯定會有更多人來。而且參加讀詩會和聽CD感覺不同,可以make eye contact,use body language,和其他人分享這種經歷。

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

3

school need the students who study politician science to read the newspaper and new newpaper room will set in the library.

  the man like the idea, he think read the newapaper can give him a chance to know a lot of thing about the topic of research paper, 可以有效的幫助學生去理解一些大事情,

還有,news room good 因為同學能更好的學習,多門天真的孩子啊

2008.5.10ML

口語三:學校報紙出來一則新的policy ,要求學生把belongings搬到一個什么store space的地方.每個人分3個箱子.然后是男女生見面討論.

那個女生說1)她這不公平,可以開車把東西弄回家去,但是她的roommate就難辦了. 2)沒有必要worry地盤不夠用,好象是說的dorm可以放吧

2014.9.27NA 

Task3:

reading: university theter is planning to prohibit eating food in the stadium reason1: eating is a distraction to other members in the show, and avoid eating increase the experience  reason 2: students do not bring the waste out of the stadium- forget to dispose. listening: the woman agree with th notice  reason1: noise. someone eats popcorn and distracts her. reason2: dirty. someone leaves the popcorn box in the stadium.

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task3:

【學校通知】:announcement學校計劃要搞library expansion:把圖書館旁邊的student center改造成new library,從而increase library space。好處1、有更多的空間擺放更多書shelves、存放更多媒體materials。好處2、擺放更多桌椅,讓學生有更多地方自習。

【學生態度】:男生反對。理由1、學校應該用technology手段而非擴建圖書館以節省space,比如將資料掃描成electronic copy儲存到電腦里可以節省空間。理由2、同學們愛去student center自習,不愛去圖書館。學校減小學生中心只能導致學生自習空間更少。

版本二

聽力材料講,男學生不同意,1說學生可以在student center學習即使擴建還是滿屋子書架,學習空間大不了哪去。

第三題:閱讀說學校圖書館要給更多的space吧。 然后聽力反對,說更多space不好,2點理由,第一說圖書館可以用電子化書籍,用電腦,電腦比shelf占的地方小多了。第二貌似是說有個student center還是哪里,中間有個xx,有很大的space,可以在那里放些桌子,這樣同學們可以到那里去學習,這樣圖書館就有更多地方放shelf

2013.12.14NA

口語三:給大學新生建議周末去野營,并且學校提供道具和方案,女的不同意,理由1第一年應該在學校校園環境 理由2裝備很貴,一年只用一次,性價比不高。

2011.3.26ML

【學生困難】:

很多人想報short story course,因此要交一篇short story,教授覺得合適的人錄取,但女生擅長的是寫poem

【解決方案】:

第一個方案:按要求寫short story,但是女生從沒讀過,也沒時間(要考試),要寫也只能草草寫;

第二個方案:該女生擅長寫詩,交一篇以前寫的詩歌,但怕老師直接拒絕了。

【問題】:

Briefly summarize the problem and two possible solutions. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why.

2014.11.29ML

3. Library to offer reference materials online only

Reading: The library decides no longer keep paper copies because run out of space on shelves.

Conversation: 男表示都在線查資料太棒了。因為男在圖書館工作,深有體會。書記資料太多,整理很麻煩,學生檢索起來也不是很方便。女表示沒有意識到會有這么大的問題。男的反問女的你上次什么時候去的圖書館查資料還記得嗎,表明去圖書館查閱紙質資料的人其實也不是很多。女的同意,表示反正宿舍也有電腦,查閱起來也很方便。

QUESTION: Please express his opinion, state his opinion and explain his reason for holding his ideas.

2012.12.1NA 

3

閱讀材料是學校通知下學期將開設interview skill workshop,會請外面的職業人士來學校模擬interview,幫學生更好的準備以后找工作。

對話里兩個人都很喜歡這個program,因為1,附近的其他學校都沒有開設這個program,所以他們會變得competitive2,除了能教你skillmeeting and chatting with這些不同行業的人能夠build up connections

2011.10.14NA

3

閱讀:一個校報letter說一個學生提意見說圖書館家具 沙發太爛要求換新的,理由是大家經常去圖書館學習希望more relaxing 更舒適

聽:女生反對,說太relaxing反而不利于學習,因為太舒服了很容易就沒心思學習了,光休息了。她建議說換家具不如多裝一些電門,因為學生都是帶laptop去的,經常不夠用。這個更necessary

2013.12.28ML   

口語三,學校調整住宿政策,大一只和大一住,因為大一新生之間要多了解交流,并且學校提供不混住的宿舍會吸引到更多學生。對話中女生覺得這樣很沒必要,因為:1新生已經有很多機會相互了解了,比如活動什么的,而且他們很多課都一起上;2很多學生喜歡混住的宿舍,包括包括她就是被這種mixed type吸引的,因為前輩可以給他們經驗和建議。

2010.3.20NA

3

閱讀:a letter about humanistic study lounge

聽力:男的說真不錯,這樣就不用浪費時間了,不用跑多個地方去上課了,來去各10分鐘, 課間30分鐘,如果有了這個,就可以在一個地方不用跑了。另外,有的課很難,有助于學生們交流提供一個場所,比如Hamlet很難,找不到同學討論,如果有lounge 就不一樣了,可以在一起討論解決。

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口語三:學校計劃不再免費提供打印材料,并限定每個學生每個月只能打印100張。理由1、浪費紙張太多。理由2、打印機經常卡紙。                             

 女生不同意:一,研究論文過程中打印的紙張不能算作浪費;打印機卡紙是因為機器本身太舊。

2014.7.26NA

3.university should sponsor organized a bus trips for 1st years tudents. 1. 1st year students don't have a car, 2. senors can be more familiar with the city.

  The woman thinks it is a good idea. First, the city is far from campus, and no public transportation available. Second, because there is no bus, she did not know the time and place for music concerts.

2014.2.28NA  

S3

閱讀里說學校決定取消夏天的早餐服務,因為吃飯的學生不多,而且想吃的人也可以到附近的咖啡廳吃早餐。聽力里女生不同意,因為很多學生夏天也會在校上課,需要早餐提供體力,另外去其他咖啡廳吃早餐價格太貴。

2014.4.5NA  

S3

Reading: Proposal of selling snack and drinks in the campus bookstore.

  Reasons: 1. It provides students with food and drinks when they are finding books to read. 2. Students may get hungry during class breaks.

Listening: Disapproval 1. Students may spill drinks on books and ruin them. Some books are expensive. 2. There is already a convenience store in campus close to the building where classes are held. Students are unlikely to go to the other side of the campus to buy food from the book store.

2014.4.12NA  

口語三:                          

版本一:文中說下學期開始,學生將不被允許在學生活動中心外面的墻上張貼海報,因為海報使建筑難看,海報可以貼在餐廳的海報欄里。女生不認同,她說如果不給貼,那個建筑就會變的很boring,就是光禿禿的水泥墻,海報使建筑看上去有藝術感,使它具有性格和個性,海報常常變化,也使得建筑不那么沉悶。關于海報貼在餐廳外,女孩說不是所有人都在餐廳吃飯,課后有的人吃點零食,有的在外面吃從家帶來的飯,這樣的話,他們就看不到貼在餐廳外的海報,可能會錯過很多    

版本二:

Proposal

The university prohibit students riding bicycles on campus next semester. 

Reasons 

1. There are some minor accidents. The university will reduce the accidents caused by riding bicycles. 

2. Students can take free campus buses. So it will not affect students much. Listening 

The girl disagrees. Reasons 

1. The accidents took place at night because of low visibility.  

2. Free buses are not convenient. Buses are only available once an hour and waiting for 

buses is a waste of time. 

2014.6.28NA

Task3:

圖書館furniture舊了,換新的,原因一:舒服二:吸引更多人來圖書館。

女生不同意:沙發軟容易困,不集中精力;現在人少是因為很多人用電腦,但是電源插頭不夠。

2014.8.30NA

TASK3

3.Letter: 學校應該讓大家在注冊了課程之后立馬能夠拿到課程的書單,這樣能夠有兩個好處。第一,給學生足夠的時間去找到價格低廉的教科書。第二,給學生足夠的時間開始為這門課做準備。

 To make the book list available to students immediately after the registration

1)Give students time to search for low price textbooks

2)Let them have time start preparing for the course

 Conversation: 男生完全同意信的內容

1)學校書店新書太貴,二手書很便宜,但是數量少,而且賣的非常快。這樣之后可以有足夠的時間去不同地方找便宜的二手書

2)開學了之后會很忙碌,有很多的reading要做。而開學之前就比較閑,有很多的空閑時間,可以利用起來閱讀。

2014.9.6NA

TASK3

3.圖書館規定加一個人proposal: against the libraries’ regulation that students shouldn’t use cell phones in the library and students should turn off their cell phone before entering. Two reasons: students are considerate enough to keep their voices low when answering calls just like they do when talking to other people in the library; they occasionally have important calls, so they need to keep the cell phone turned on in order not to miss them.

一個男生和女生討論,女生的觀點是這個proposal很挫,因為:1. If students answer calls, they have to whisper, but the other side聽不清楚,so they have to raise their voices up, thus distracting other students; 2. 如果他們有重要的電話,可以check outside the library from time to time. (再次重復一遍這個意思)

2014.9.27NA

3,校園里建museum. 男生不同意。一是downtown有周末還免費 二是都建圖書館和學生中心,沒錢建博物館。

2014. 2014.10.17NA

Task3;

一個女生和一個男生對話,女生說a few students’ art works were chosen 在一個art exhibit上展出;男生sounds great, so you are one of them;女生說是的,但是問題來了,她的那幅畫太大,is a 3-meter canvas,會超出展覽方給的limited exhibiting space.男生說真的嗎?女生說,對的,他們不愿意給我更大的space, because that will be unfair for other students. 接著說,但我可以把我的一副older painting拿去展出(one suggestion),which is smaller.男生說可以啊;女生說,但是那幅畫是我以前畫的,而我的technique has improved a lot since then,所以那幅畫不能體現我的真實水平;男生說,那要不你draw a new one by the next week(第二個suggestion);女生說其實也可以,但是我最近很busy,a couple of exams coming.

2014.11.8NA  

3

A letter from a student to campus newspaper: Graduation speakers should be business leaders: 1. business leaders are excellent role models. They are successful and influential, earn high wages; 2. Inviting business leaders to speak will be beneficial to the school’s largest and best business program.因此更多人會知道。By Ryan Brown

Listening: 男生說你看到ryan給學校寫的那封信了嗎?女孩說看到了,我覺得其實這樣不好,因為people from other professions can also be successful and influential;男生說意思是要增加variety嗎?女生說對,比如可以邀請teachers,很多teacher也會對學生產生深遠的影響;男生問,那他說的可以benefit我們學校的business program這一點呢?女生說:其實這個business program is successful and famous enough, so it doesn’t deserve extra free advertising. 相反,如果邀請教師,會對我們學校的education program產生良好影響

2014.11.29NA  

3. Library to offer reference materials online only

Reading: The library decides no longer keep paper copies because run out of space on shelves.

Conversation: 男表示都在線查資料太棒了。因為男在圖書館工作,深有體會。書記資料太多,整理很麻煩,學生檢索起來也不是很方便。女表示沒有意識到會有這么大的問題。男的反問女的你上次什么時候去的圖書館查資料還記得嗎,表明去圖書館查閱紙質資料的人其實也不是很多。女的同意,表示反正宿舍也有電腦,查閱起來也很方便。

QUESTION: Please express his opinion, state his opinion and explain his reason for holding his ideas.

2014.12.19NA  

3. Reading part: Nowadays university news station hire students from different majors to write articles for the newspaper, while in the future, the news station should only hire journalism students to write. In this way, they can keep students who are really interested in news, and can have more articles completed.

Listening part: Disagree

1) Students in other major may also be interested in writing news piece, so the university should also encourage those students to write for newspaper. Take him for example, he’s now majored in history but he wants to enter news industry in the future.

2) Extra articles don’t help. There’s no point to have too much articles coming in, because the station may not have the resource and time to deal with so many articles. The process of preparing an article is complicated, which includes the efforts of both the editors and writers. The writers write first and hand in to editors for reviewing, and then back to the writers to edit, and then back to the editors for final editing.

2013.6.8NA

3

Reading:

  學生寫信,學校咖啡廳提供beverages and cookies很好,但建議增加兩項:

  一些如sandwiches這樣難吃的食物

  more light music

  Listening:

  The woman agrees with the proposal,具體兩點進行支持:

  the cookies don't really help much when she's hungry,所以的確要有一些其他吃的

the music there is too noisy now, she has to go back to her dorm to read instead of reading there

2013.11.22NA

口語三:                               

Reading:Proposal:The lounge in the dorm should be changed into study room.              Reason 1:People can go there to study.                     

Reason 2:The study room should be eqipped with computers.                  Listening:The man agrees.             

Reason 1:It's too noisy in the lounge because people watch TV there,and the dorm rooms can be noisy too because the roommate is always on the phone or listening to music,and they have nowhere to study.               

Reason 2: Computers make it so much more conveninent to study,because not everyone has a computer, sometimes they have to go to the library to use the computers there and the library is closed when it's too late.

2013.12.20NA

口語三:學校報紙上有個建議將在校生和alumni聯系,討論careeractivities,女學生對話里說,她認為學生現在很忙,沒有時間拜訪,而且學生已經有學校家長給他們建議了,太多的建議只會更加confusing

2011.6.25ML

3

newspaper上有人寫信說建議在宿舍增加廚房和冰箱等設備,讓學生在宿舍做飯。男生同意,說GREAT IDEA,然后說可以食堂可供選擇的總是不想吃的,還可以幾個人一個組做飯,learn from each other之類的. 那個男生最后還說了一點paragraph以外的理由,即after graduation students will need to live alone and cook their own food anyway. 因此在學校就開廚房做飯可以learn some practical life skills

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

閱讀:教授要求學生在上討論課程前發email給她。

The email from a professor says that require students submit her two questions about the reading material one day ahead on class discussion.

聽力:男學生認為很好,1)說可以節省時間,并舉例上上次討論花費太長時間。 2)預習課程不僅有利于討論,并對課程結束時的paper有很有好處,提供很多好idea topic.

There are two beneficial. First, it can to promote students finish reading assignment better. Second, it can add class discussion to aim at students’ interests. The man agrees with the professor’s requirement about the discussion for two reasons. Firstly, he thinks it is good for the discussion part because it would save time. Last time, it took him a long time to finish discussion. Second, it is useful for their finals. Because students have interesting ideas ready and they are easy to write paper.

QuestionExplain the man’s opinion and why she holds that opinion.

2011.5.28NA

版本一:【主題】A letter to a university, Witten by a girl .Seats are planning to

be built outside (on the lawn).

1觀點】男反對:

2理由】【1.Another dining room is closed .l t will be better if that dining room is open , and students can  use both.

2. Some people will play soccer on the lawn ,and they will hit some people.                               版本二:【主題】在食堂附近的草地上設些桌椅

【理由】【1.食堂太擠,【2.可以享受好天氣

1觀點】男的不認為這是個好主意。

2理由】【1.還有食堂其它的halls可以用,只要學生們不要只集中在一個hall里用餐就可以解決這個擁擠的問題了。【2.好像是室外草地可以用于運用

2013.1.18NA

3 Reading:大學準備關閉學生的art gallery

Listening: 男生反對該決議:1. 該大學藝術系學生多,作品來源不成問題。2. 學校的宣傳做得不好,經常是展覽結束后了,才有介紹文章出來,大家都不知道有展覽。

附錄原文:

W: Did you read the school newspaper? The art galley will be closed in a few days.

M: Hum, I knew the decision. You know what? I am going to write an e-mail to Dean to complain about this plan.

W: So, what are you complaining about? It looks they have done nothing wrong about it. You know, not too many art majors take the advantage of the gallery and display their works there.

M: Ah, that is true, obviously. But...but they see only part of the truth.

W: What do you mean?'

M: Well, let me put it this way. The reason that many majors don't display their works in the gallery is that they take the chance of exhibiting in the gallery very seriously. So they always wait until everything is perfect before sending their works to the exhibition.

W: Aha, I didn't know it before. But how would you explain that only very few students come to the gallery even during the period of exhibition?

2013.1.26NA

3

學生寫信限制詩歌課的人員數量,控制在15左右,以讓學生能夠更多get feedback from professor, 控制的方式可通過選TOP15的學生,被選出的學生一般都是對課程serious

2013.4.6NA  

3

announcement: Ice-skating rink will be converted into student house holding.理由: 1, not enough space to hold all the students in campus 所以要改建滑冰場給新生做宿舍2, 那座building is convenience, near town.

conversation: the man disagrees with the change.

理由: 1, 很多學生都喜歡去那里滑冰,是一個有趣的場所,企鵝附近沒有那樣的場地了。

2, 學生住的地方應該里教室圖書館等地近才好,如果有學生住到改建的那里要來回折騰,浪費時間。

2013.5.17NA

口語三::學校組織meeting邀請教職員工和學生參加以了解學校發展,在主會場和倆分會場舉行;分會場人不能提問。女生反對,認為可以把報告放到學校網站,一來所有人都能了解全部內容,如果meeting的話不是所有人都能參加;二來可以發郵件提問演講者解答疑惑,meeting的話分會場人不能提問

口語第四題

2012.4.22ML

Task 4

Reading partListening part【名詞解釋】:

emotion display(情緒表達規則):

It means the expression of emotion depends on the society in which we are live in.【教授舉例】:

The professor uses an example of his 4-year-old daughter. She had a birthday party. Prior to the party, parents told her that she should hide her negative emotion when she did not like the gift received. Her grandmother gave her cute clothes as a gift. But the girl did not like it and felt disappointed. Before her negative emotion became too obvious, her mother said the clothes were very cute. The girl suddenly realized that she should say thank you to grandmother and she did that.

Question:用聽力的例子來解釋對這個概念的理解。

2013.7.14ML

TASK4

講的有時候文化差異不能融合。例子North RussiaSouth Russia,南邊用馬拉扯產奶一堆活動,開始北邊也學著用馬但是失敗了因為太冷了,后來就換了ring deer然后很好的工作。

2013.3.22NA

4: sociology,一個女教授說不同種群的人會用自己創造的語音來進行對話。

舉了兩個例子;一個是醫生們用自己有的專業知識來進行交流,但對病人就要詳細說明;一個是一群share experience的人,有過共同經歷,只要mention 事情的keyword就能引起共鳴。 summarize一下就可以了。

版本2developmental response就是植物可以調整自己適應環境的改變。教授舉了pine trees作為例子。這種樹可以長在陰涼地方或者sunny place。長在陰涼地方,SOIL濕,就不需要發達extended roots system去生存。長在陽光好的地方,土地干,需要發達的根系汲取充足的水分。

2011.11.20ML 

口語四:講priming,人的thoughtsbehavior會受到之前的經歷的影響。professor舉例,一個女生坐在公車上正想著以前的大學生活,寫作業什么的,看到一個陌生男生上車坐下來,在寫東西,女生就認為他一定是個學生,正在寫作業。而另一個女生剛剛讀完一本詩集,所以她認為這個男生是個作家或者詩人。

2009.8.2ML/2008.1.18NA 

S4

Reading: tragedy of commons. 給了定義和解釋

Lecture:教授舉了兩個例子說明什么是tragedy of commons. 其一是fishing.說當然捕的魚多,掙的錢多。能accee to oceant的人自然愿意去多fishing。但是一旦overfishing,大家就都finished out with no fish. 其二是grazin. 說一個屬于整個viliage的草坪,大家都喜歡把自己的動物帶來grazing,草吃完了長起來,大家就帶更多的動物來,當然草會被吃光了,然后就overgrazing了。

2011.3.11NA 

Task4:

【講座主題】motivation research of consumer客戶購買東西的動機:是公司為了調查消費者為什么不買他們產品的調查但是有的時候消費者自己也aware不到為什么。問卷調查不能有效反映顧客的motivation

 

【教授舉例】教授說了一個例子。一個制衣cloth公司因為運動衣cloth不暢銷,所以做了一個調查。他們沒有直接問為什么,而是給people雜志和剪刀,讓他們剪cut下來認為適合公司產品的圖片。顧客剪下來的都是運動員圖。所以就反映顧客認為他們的運動衣只適合運動衣,不適合大眾。于是后來制衣公司就改進。

2012.9.8ML

4

Reading part Listening part

【課文要點】:

personality attribution error:

人們總會把錯誤歸結為personality上面,而忽略了一些客觀的外部條件。 【教授舉例】:

教授(男)用自己的例子做了解釋。一次他參加一個會議,遲到了十分鐘,他很安靜的進入會場,沒打擾到其他人。在會中教授向演講者(女)問了一個問題,但是她并沒有搭理教授,而且看著有些生氣。教授后來了解了情況才意識到,女演講者在會議開始就說了今天時間緊張,讓大家不要提問,下次開會的時候再提問。而女演講者以為教授故意忽略了她一開始做的說明,她并不知道教授遲到了,沒聽到她做那個說明。

Question: 用聽力的例子來解釋對這個概念的理解。

2010.8.13NA 

口語四:                              

READING說的是social responsibility。當公司考慮更多的責任的時候,就可能會有一些經濟上的犧牲啦~可是呢,當顧客知道這些犧牲后,又會非常歡樂地來購物啦。

lecture里面舉了個例子  coffe shop,開始是plastic CUP,不環保  就換成了recycle PAPER 做的

后來又推出新措施  讓人們可以帶自己的杯子啥的 還有DISCOUNT

2013.10.25NA

口語四:trial offer。幾個月前我看見電視上的一個廣告(commercial)在推銷stretching machine,在廣告里都是一些很健美的男人,有很漂亮的肌肉,并且告訴你使用效果很棒,我看了很動心,但是那個廣告只提供了一個購買電話在屏幕上,我對此猶豫不決,因為我不知道這個我沒有聽說過(unheard of),不熟悉(unfamiliar)的機器究竟是好是壞, 它是不是真的像廣告中的那樣起作用,因此我沒有買。

幾天后我在另外一個頻道中看見了關于這個健身器材的同樣的廣告,這次不僅有購買電話號碼,并且提供一個月的免費試用期,可以先使用后付款,于是我就訂購了一臺,試用期滿后我付款買下了這臺健身器。

2011.10.14NA

4

閱讀:講小孩遇到做事失敗后經常frastrate,稍微大點的孩子就會知道如何克服這種不好的情緒,講家長要怎么怎么幫助孩子去增強抗失落

聽:舉例說自己的孩子玩積木吧蓋塔,經常倒。倒了就叫家長幫忙,他每次都去幫忙。但后來發現這樣不好,所以他每次都故意晚去一會,幾周之后孩子學會了獨立完成。

2010.3.20NA

4

問題:男人說要寫一個作業關于poem的,他發現一本好書在圖書館,但他出去玩瘋了,忘了在Weds(大概是)借書了,而且他點背,那天圖書館關門早。

解決方案

1女的說可不可以用別的poem書呢,他就覺得這書好。

2另外一個就是,明天早晨早點兒去圖書館,然后快點兒看,因為沒啥時間了,必須的他交作業了

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口語四:advanced crediting 這一概念:老師在學生沒有完成某任務之前就鼓勵學生們說他們會做這個可以幫助學生最后完成這個任務。                              

聽力材料里professor講述了advanced crediting的一個例子,總是鼓勵一開始亂仍糖紙的小孩子是講衛生,愛干凈的孩子,他們到最后就會變得不亂丟糖紙了。

2013.5.26ML

Task 4

  Term: Impact Bias

  Definition: people have inaccurate expectations of the impact certain event will have on them. Both the intensity and how long it would last

  Lecture:

The professors daughter wanted to apply to this University because her best friends are applying and the University’s got a great educational program. She thought he life will be ruined if she didn’t get it. It turns out she wasn’t accepted. She got very upset about it. But she was busy taking care of her high school graduation and planning her summer vacation. Pretty soon she forgot about her misfortune of being rejected by the school, and move on with her life.

2014.7.26NA

4. commitment device

  the professor wanted to run a 10 kilometer race,and planned to get up very early in the morning. But he often went back to sleep after getting up. Then he has a friend who ran with him together so that he was able to run every early in the morning.

2014.2.28NA  

S4閱讀講Nomadic phase指動物的遷徙,主要因為一些生活危機,例如食物枯竭或其他災難。聽力舉例蟻群居住在地下,但當新蟻出生后他們就會遷徙,以滿足對新生螞蟻的食物源頭。

2012.2.18NA2011.11.26ML/2009.9.11NA

S4

講的是貨幣的形式, 說的是1, 貨幣是coin and paper bonds. 例子是如果你坐出租車, 你付給driver的是錢.

還有一種方式是以物易物, 說一個農夫坐出租車, 他可以給司機他的農產品, 如果司機同意了, 那這個時候農產品就是錢.

但是, 政府規定了我們現在使用第一種方式.

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task4:

promotion risk. 聽力舉的例子是一個software designer因為工作很好,就升職做了supervisor of xxx department,但是這個人很擅長設計軟件,但是不擅長管理,不能在deadline之前完成工作,不能motivate其他員工,但是又不能給他降職,會讓他很沒面子,因而公司要承擔給他升職的風險。

  解析:

  閱讀材料:中心詞是promotion risk,記錄下該術語的definition或者explanation

  聽力材料:教授舉例。

答題:按照閱讀筆記復述術語概念,按照聽力筆記將該例子復述即可。注意promotion risk與例子之間的聯系。

2013.4.27NA

4是講一個概念,忘記了這個概念是什么,但是意思是老師對一個學生的印象往往來自于別的老師的評價和別的學生的印象,但是這樣的印象往往是不準確的。音頻提供的例子是教授交六年級學生的時候有一個同學特別安靜。教授布置了一個任務,以為這個學生太安靜了而不能完成。。但是最后是這個學生做的最好。

2011.12.18ML

4.distraction display動物們會把predator吸引走,來保護自己的幼仔。for example, 什么Mourning dove(讀音是這樣)Mourning doves build their nests on the ground, so they are more exposed and vulnerable to large predators. 像狐貍。如果adult dove看到狐貍就會立馬做出反應,它會飛開自己的巢,裝作自己的wingbroken的,讓狐貍以為自己是一個easy victim.其實不是。adult dove把狐貍吸引到很遠的地方后,自己再突然逃脫,它Nest里的Young dove就安全了(貌似這個distraction displayTPO的聽力里出現過。)

2009.9.19NA

口語四:  

一個說學校要建個圖書館  但是會覆蓋了原有用來hang out 的地方

一個女生是一個組織的代表  想申請一個event 去表示他們組織的反對

*問到為什么Dean 要問她組織里有多少人

因為要確定他們是否有足夠影響力

*問雜志上什么寫錯了: 其實這件事還沒定下來

*那個女的應該做research 然后去參加會議  直接跟領導人講  

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

S4

閱讀:文章介紹一種藝術作品, 并且給出了定義, 然后介紹了2種類型

聽力:講座介紹分別舉例子介紹這兩種類型:第一種好像介紹了一個浴缸, 藝術家在其外面 cover rubber, make it yellow, 參觀者覺得很漂亮, 沒有想到這種平常的東西會如此soft, smooth;第二種好像說的是撐衣架, factory manufactured, 沒有經過任何modification, just stay as it usually looks like. 同樣讓人們驚嘆好看

2010.1.30NA 

4

business classlateral view(側面觀點).就是從一個新的觀點來看問題.

對話里的教授舉了一個例子:一個經營賓館的人老遭到顧客抱怨說等電梯時間太長.然后經理先去找了電梯生產商,發現解決問題成本太高.然后他的員工給他提意見說可以在電梯前裝個電視,顧客就不覺得無聊了.問題讓你用這個例子來說明lateral view.

2008.5.10ML

口語四:短文說:商業上經常采用分類的方式來標記商品,商品按照大眾認識的分類,就可以被找到.在商品的分類上創新,可以增加用戶對商品的注意,增加銷售量..

lecture:以手表為例,人們以前把它認為是一種昂貴而嚴肅的珠寶產品,做工精細,用于看時間,可以保存很長時間。但一個公司創造性地把它定位在流行時尚和有趣的產品上,它由塑料制造而不再是金屬,也不貴了。

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

4

joint verture   一個公司和一個公司合作創立第三個公司,平分利潤。

聽力老師用個一個tv 公司想要build一個網站post the news 但是他們沒有高人幫他們弄網站,就找了一幫高人有著很強電腦技能,to design and maintain the website. they will provide the news. the profit made by third company is adversitment in the website, they 平分利潤。

2013.12.14NA

口語四:permeable group的概念,意即相比于一些封閉的動物種群,有一些動物種群的group愿意接納外界的個體加入group一起生活,相互交流一些經驗。Lecture中,professor舉了female chimpanzee的例子,chimpanzee到了十歲的時候就會離開家庭,獨自尋找一個group生活。而新的group也很樂意接納她,因為她會帶來一些新的知識。比如說在捕食上,由于她從另一個地方來,她在捕食ant的時候采取一種借助stick的方式,即讓ant都從stick的一端爬上,然后她再在另一端等著吃掉它們。這個group里的其他成員會看著她完成這一切,記錄下來并應用到以后的生活中。

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口語四,閱讀講Test Marketing用來測試潛在客戶對一個產品的反應,幫助公司對產品的問題進行修改,聽力里舉了電影公司的例子。比如他們做一個動畫片給小孩看,但他們沒有經驗,所以就找來一些小孩看這部片子并且問他們最喜歡的角色,小孩都說喜歡里面的狗,于是公司以此為判斷,把狗作為了動畫片的主角,然后大獲成功。

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task4:

【名詞解釋】:friend affiliation(群體歸屬)refers to the people’s desire to be a member of a certain group。廣告商make advisement by using people’s affiliation有兩種方法:一是利用其positive effect,通過宣揚廣告產品可以增加affiliation,在朋友之間尋求認同。二是利用其negative方法,如果用別的brand產品就會失去affiliation

【教授舉例】:為一個軟飲料公司策劃一個ad campaign,可有兩種方案:第一種方案:在一個happy party里,everybodydrink the same kind ofbrandsoda,都很happyThe soda becomes a very important thing in this situation。第二種方案:some young people are watching a football game in a stadium,突然 one of them drink a wrong brand of sodathen all the people become quite and 用奇怪的眼神look at himand leave him aloneeven his best friend left himThen he realized he made a big mistake to drink the wrong kind soda。這是從negative入手讓觀眾喜歡這個牌子的soda。問教授是怎么說明reading passage中的觀點的。

2014.9.13NA 

4

biological monitor(這個我當時有點蒙圈,說到一半才突然弄明白了TAT)

用來check health of environment

聽力是一個機場每天有飛機,用蜜蜂的蜂蜜產量來判斷環境好不好,結果發現蜂蜜產量沒有變化,所以環境是好的

2013.9.28NA

Task4:

閱讀話題是biological mimicry,即科學家通過觀察動植物的生活習慣和生活方式獲得靈感,把其中的一些值得借鑒的方式應用到人類生活中。聽力里professor談論的是一種叫lily pad的寬大扁平的植物(睡蓮葉),一般漂浮在水面上,根莖在水中,科學家們由此發明了solar lily pads,一種太陽能裝置,扁平的太陽能panel漂浮在水中,而發電裝置放置在水中,可以大面積吸收太陽能然后快速轉換成電能,為人類生產生活服務。

2011.3.26ML

【講課要點】:

古人要使火不滅,需要學習兩方面的知識。1technological skill:燃燒的木頭可能是因為閃電引起的。一開始人不知道,后來他們發現木頭其實是一種fuel,如果往火里不停加木頭,火就能一直燒下去。2social skill:大家如果都睡覺的話,火就會滅掉,學會輪班加木頭,火就能一直燒下去。

The lecture is about early human how to keep fire burning. Two ways one is find the fuel first such as tree woods. Second is social work such as cooperation, because they have to take turns to look after the fire to keep it burning all the time

2012.12.1NA 

4

閱讀:一business class介紹了fast following這個conceptwhich means一些公司不愿意be the first to try new products,于是如果別的公司推出了innovativenew product,他們會快速效仿。
聽力:例子是一video game company顛覆傳統,用感應人的動作的movement sensor代替controller(不就是wii嗎。。。。。。),市場反應很好。于是另外一家公司馬上效仿這個做法,而且還improve了他們的graphic quality,所以市場上人們都灰常like it and buy it

2014.4.5NA  

S4

Reading: Compound Nesting (biology) two species live together, which are different enough not to compete for food.

Listening: example of Ants in Africa. The bigger ant collects food, and the smaller one eats the left over scrambles. For the smaller one, it doesn't need to search for food. For the bigger one, the smaller one makes the nest clean by eating the left over food, which prevents bacteria.

2014.4.12NA  

口語四:                          

版本一:說的是animal coloration,說是動物會具有一種獨特的顏色,這種顏色會警告它的捕食者,如果被侵犯,它就會攻擊,吃過苦頭的攻擊者下次見到這種顏色的動物就會避而遠之。教授說了一個例子,skunk臭 鼬是一種全身黑的動物,只有一縷白毛從頭部延伸到尾巴,它被攻擊時會豎起毛,尾巴上的腺體噴出十分難聞的氣體。比如說一只狼接近它,它就會把這種難聞的液 體噴狼一身,由于這種液體十分的惡心難聞,狼就記住了這種動物的顏色特征,下次這只狼再看到全身黑,背上有從頭到尾巴的白毛的動物就會遠遠的避開。                                

版本二:

Test costumers, are people who are hired by employers to evaluate the employees’

 performance during work. They pretend to be normal customers.                           Examples 

A restaurant manager wanted to observe how well the waitress and waiter did. She watched in person, but it was successful, because people who were observed behaved better than usual. So, she hired a man who pretended to be a normal customer in the restaurant, and ask employees questions, then the man gave the manager a feedback about employees behavior, for example, whether she is friendly and polite.

2014.6.28NA

Task4:

教授給兒子買積木兒子第一次玩stack a tower積木fell down he call his father for help.兒子play the blocks everyday and everytime his blocks fall down he'll call his father.the professor 故意stay longer day by day than before...兒子在等他爸的時間里學會自己搭積

2014.8.30NA

TASK4

4.講的是procedural memory

 文章:procedural記憶和普通的記憶不一樣(比如記住名字啥的),它是一種時間中根據步驟step by step而記下來的。是能夠自動automatically執行的記憶(act automatically if frequently practiced)。

 講座:男教授用自己學和彈吉他的經驗來說明這個procedural memory

 他開始學吉他的時候,從如何hold住琴,如何place fingers開始到練習彈奏歌曲。每次回去之后都會練習很久,一段時間之后,他可以拿起琴就知道如何放手指,輕松的彈奏歌曲。但是有段時間有事兒,沒有空練習(貌似是好幾年)。當他再有機會拿起琴的時候,他以為自己忘了如何彈奏。可是當他拿起琴之后,他就知道怎樣放手指,并且彈奏歌曲了。

2014.9.6NA

TASK4

4.Reading: convergent revolution-two different locations but pose similar challenges, thus unrelated species develop similar physical features.

Lecture: aardvark in Africa and echidna in Australia. They eat the same insects as their main food. The insects’ nest are of hard crust, so predator很難吃到這種昆蟲,因此these two animals have the same long, sticky tongue in order to capture the insects.在昆蟲的巢穴上鑿洞,把舌頭伸進去吃……

2014.9.27NA

4,廣告對環境的負面影響。

2014.10.17NA

Task4;

Reading:

Professor evaluation

這個student寫了個letter給校方希望能改變professor evaluationwhich is carried out at the end of every class,的方式。之前的evaluate之后都是教授自己看,不具有公開性;所以學生propose to put the evaluations online. 有兩個好處:1. Professors will get more motivated to improve his teaching skills if he knows that the evaluations will go public. 2. 學生也可以通過這些評估做出more informed decision as to which course to take.

Listening:

男生女生對話,男生說,哎挺好的啊。女生說,我覺得一點都不好。教授肯定feel not happy about his course being publicly criticized,他不會take it seriously 而這些evaluation也不會influence他的Teaching skill。男生說,但至少學生們表達的自己的觀點啊。女生說:這就是問題所在。The evaluations are usually the end of the last class舉行,很多學生都in a hurry to leave,所以不會take the evaluation seriously ,也不會提一些specific的建議。

2014.11.8NA  

4. 女孩說summer is coming,你都準備好了干什么啊?男生說準備去professorlab里面做一個chemistry research internship,女生說seems that you are all set。男生說其實沒有,還有很多問題。我的這個internship is unpaid, but I need to earn money.女生說我聽說campus book store在招人,你可以work in the lab during weekdays and go to the book store at weekends.男生說then I cannot relax much.女生說倒也是,或者你可以ask your professor to see whether you can share then internship with others.你就可以在沒有工作的那幾天出去賺錢。男生說,對的,我聽說以前也出現過幾個人share這個position的情況,the professor was fine with it. 女生贊同,男生說但是那樣我就不能learn as much as I can if I do it for full-time. I cannot follow up with the experiments and results.

2014.11.29NA  

4.vertical migration

Reading: we usually associate migration with birds. But other species do migration too. 目的:warm climate and more favorable condition for reproduction.

Lecture: squid. 每天晚上它會在水的表面找東西和活動,會一直到天明。但是白天的時候會回到水的下面,因為上層不安全,陽光容易使得squid很容易捕獵者發現,所以它需要刀深水來躲避。

QUESTION: Use details from the reading and lectures to explain vertical migration and how it benefits the squid.

2014.12.19NA  

4. Reading part: Nectar Corridor

Nectar corridor is a distinctive type of migratory corridor comprised of a series of stepping stones placed in a dissimilar matrix. Some of the migratory species time their migration to match the flowering and fruiting of various food plants. The flowing plants serve as nectar trials to fuel their flights. In the process of moving from one plant to another, these species are not only feeding, they are also pollinating.

Listening part: A species called Rufous Hummingbird follows the nectar corridor. They migrate each fall to southern Mexico, feeding off flowering plants on their way. In the spring they again follow the nectar trail as they return to Northern California, Washington and the Rocky Mountains and well into southern Alaska. This small bird plays an important role in plant reproduction by moving pollen from plant to plant on its winter grounds, breeding grounds, and any area over which it migrates. From Alaska to Mexico and throughout the western US, the Rufous Hummingbird drinks nectar and pollinates flowers year-round   throughout the habitat that it visits annually.

How does the example in the listening part explain the concept of priority effects?

2013.6.8NA

4

Reading:

  動物之間cooperation,協同作戰抵御捕食者

  Listening:

動物遷徙時,如果一只停下來喝水,其他也會一起停下喝水,再繼續一起遷徙,因為there might be predators like lions on the dry open grass, 單獨行動很危險。

2013.11.22NA

口語四:Definition:Latent demand means that potential customers needs can be identified by the companies thus better meet the needs of the customers.              

Examples:People used large steros to listen to music at the beginning,later smaller steros appeared and people started bringing them to ourdoors to listen to music.Some companies sensed this latent demand,and they figured that isn't it great if people could listen to music in public but privately instead of playing it out loud?So they made tiny steros with ear buds,and it was a huge success and there was no competition back then.

2013.12.20NA

口語四:virtue by association因為某人的背景或是和組織的關系而判定這個人, lectureprofessor舉了個他投票給一個市長候選人的時候,僅僅因為他的家庭在當地名聲很好,結果這個被選出來的市長并不行

2011.6.25ML

4

閱讀:講AD efficient strategy——modeling(這是題目)當產品complicated to use時這個會說得很明白 而且有演示什么的。

lecture:作者自己experience:兒子要ice-cream機,pro說那玩意太復雜買回來也不會整啊,結果偶然看到modelingAD還有演示(step by step),說這個簡單又快捷,于是乎就買了,最后教授承認真的很好用。

2011.5.28NA

版本一:【講座主題】Reading: ln the world of animals ,一些動物confronting and fighting

Against predators.

【相關例子】Lecture: A kind of dove always likes to build the nest on the ground .

Lts easy to hurt .When the fox comes ,one dove always pretends to be

hurt, and  cannot fly(luring ).So the small dove will survive.      

版本二:文章distraction display

講座:教授舉了一個例子某種鳥把窩建得高,很多動物就夠不著了,但有一種什么狐貍還可以夠得著,會傷它們的鳥寶寶和打破它們的蛋,所以成年鳥就會轉移這些狐貍的注意力,把它們引到遠離它們的窩的地方,當它們達到目的后也逃走從而保護了它們的孩子。這種行為就是文章里說的distraction display

2013.1.18NA

4 Reading: 心理學一概念:講你希望對方成為什么樣的人,你就應該按照你希望他()成為的那個樣子去對待他()

Listening: 一個實驗,一組隨機挑選的小學生,告訴教師他們(她們)都是是精挑細選的優秀生。老師因此努力教學,經常鼓勵,小學生短期內成績提高。

2013.4.6NA  

4

閱讀:conceptinvasion meltdown。這個definition我只記了:animals can help plant species to reproduce and spread, 應該還得加上入侵的部分。

聽力:examplefig tree。有人把這種樹種到yard里,但是它就只長在這yard里不會傳播到別的地方,因為這樹本來是在AsiaAsia有一種insect叫什么wass(音)的來傳播他的seed才能reproduce。然后這種insect accidently 也到了美國以后,fig tree就開始reproduce到各個地方了。然后他就在一些區域dominant了,那里原本的植物就沒了

2013.5.17NA

口語四:closeness-communication bias:人們以為自己對親近的朋友交流更有效實際上不是的,可能對陌生人更有效因為人們認為朋友會自動了解自己的意思基于相同的經歷。例子是教授叫一個老朋友jack和一個不太熟悉的新教授聚會,在一個意大利餐館。他告訴jack the Italian restaurant,以為jack知道是哪里。但是告訴新教授全名。結果后者到了準確的地點jack去了另一家餐館

2013.11.9NA

口語四:【名詞解釋】:scope creep: ask for more than origin

【教授舉例】:教授舉了他 friend 的例子。他的 friend開了一個建筑公司,要幫一個女的建一個 fence yard, 他們只是 verbally 說了,沒有簽合同。快完工時,女的說要他paint whitefriend 說只是幫忙建 fence,女的說聘請他的時候以為還會幫忙涂顏色。經過爭論后,friend 答應幫她免費paint white, 但是很不高興。

口語第五題

2012.2.24ML 

Task 5

學生困難:兩個學生聊天,一個男生說倒霉,今早太匆忙,把資料給打印重疊了(反正出問題了)都不知道。

解決方案:男女各一條建議

1.女的說,不急,你再去打。男(jim)的說,我得換一臺新電腦設施去打。但是馬上要上課了。

2.我得和教授解釋去。

NO.6

2013.6.15ML/2011.5.28ML/2010.4.24NA 

TASK5

聽力男學生遇到的問題是時間沖突。一方面他要去機場接朋友,另一方面他想去參加以為作者的演講。

  兩個解決方案為:

1 告訴朋友自己會遲到(提到的好處有:老朋友可以理解他遲到,這個朋友還可以自己在機場逛逛,吃點東西讀書。缺點是朋友大老遠跑來看他,不好意思遲到。2 不去參加的演講。(提到非常想去,如果錯過不會有第二次機會)

NO.7

2011.9.25ML/2010.11.6NA

口語五:選課的問題。男生說他想選美國文學,但是太火爆,這里不確定,要么是選不上,要么是即使能選上,也擠不進討論里面去(discussion)。兩種辦法,一種是干脆選個別的課,不選這玩意了。一種是現在不選了,下學期或者明年再選。

2015.1.31ML

T5

The woman's problem is that she shared a room with others off-campus. Her roommate is too noisy and she cannot do her own things. She is considering moving to another apartment next year.

There are two solutions for her. First, she can move back to campus. The university dorm has a policy about keeping quiet during certain hours of the day and it isn't expensive. But there's no kitchen in the dorm and the woman is really into cooking. Second, she can find another apartment near campus. It will be convenient because she has a job in library for 24 hours at a time. But with an apartment, she has the added pressure of paying rent.

2013.7.14ML

TASK5

Problem:professor要帶M attend conference, department can not provide money on transportion only afford hotel fee.     

solution:

 1) by air 自己拿錢 but expensive

 2)take train but very far whole day moreover, miss a crucial class.

2012.4.22ML

Task 5

【學生困難】:男生的朋友去他寢室玩把他室友的臺燈弄壞了。

【解決方案】:

方案一:把家里一個差不多的拿來。好處:他室友也喜歡的。壞處:倆臺燈不一樣。

方案二:商店里去買個新的。壞處:沒有一模一樣的了。而且貴。" "Task 6

【講課要點】:

美國發展快,主要原因之一就是railroad的發展:

1. 方便商品運輸,舉例,某鐘表公司,有了鐵路,可以讓很多人都購買他的鐘表,不僅僅是那些本地的或周圍的,比較遠的地方的人們也可以購買;

2. 讓公司located in new area,舉例,某公司依靠煤,有跌路后他們就可以選擇更好的地點而不是只在煤礦周圍,因為跌路運輸可以讓他們得到煤。

the effect of the expansion of rail road to the business:

1. companies can sell products to all over the country

2. can locate the factories on places where lack of natural resources like coal

2012.9.8ML 

5

【學生困難】:男生的朋友送了他一張今天晚上演唱會的門票,演唱會有他最喜歡的band的演出,但是男生有一個history paper明天要交,時間沖突了。

【解決方案】:

1. 去演唱會,回家再寫paper, 但是要熬通宵;

2. 不去演唱會,把票給別人。但是這個演唱會N年一次,錯過了可能很多年以后才能聽到

2011.3.11NA 

Task5:

1個問題】男生要給一叫Sam的哥們兒送一禮物,因為朋友喬遷之喜,打算在喬遷party上送挑了一個bookcase,因為這哥們兒家里太空了,然后這幫人回去之后發現安裝了之后少零件parts missing,這不是坑人么所以就說找店家給我們換,但是店家說要過一段時間才replace

 

【解決方案】男生自己給自己兩個方案:方案1、換一個,商店暫時沒貨,要等2weeks才來新貨,趕不上house warming。下周六直接送Sam家,再跟說我們送你個禮物不過太扯了,那還送什么啊方案2、買另外一個新的,但是更貴,超出他們預算了。

2009.8.2ML/2008.1.18NA 

S5

男生本來約好一個group discussing,是關于一個due on Mondaypaper。但是男的父親周末五十大壽,他想回去celebrate。另一個人就給了個suggestion: 說向group member解釋一下,讓他們幫著help out。難得覺得說不好吧。男的自己有說要么就Sunday早點回來,然后還能趕上回來discuss。但是又不知道會不會讓他家里人disappointment

2009.8.2ML/2008.1.18NA 

S5

男生本來約好一個group discussing,是關于一個due on Mondaypaper。但是男的父親周末五十大壽,他想回去celebrate。另一個人就給了個suggestion: 說向group member解釋一下,讓他們幫著help out。難得覺得說不好吧。男的自己有說要么就Sunday早點回來,然后還能趕上回來discuss。但是又不知道會不會讓他家里人disappointment

2010.3.20NA

5

問題:推銷服務質量,還有一個叫TESTMONIA(音)professor的朋友想做paint work,但是沒有生意,

解決方案

1.采用了推銷服務質量之后,有人說這個人涂東西極好又耐久,后來很多人都來找他。

2.另外,他還發了圖片對比涂了的和沒涂的效果,人們看到了,吸引了廣大的潛在客戶。

2013.5.26ML

Task 5

  Problem: the man is invited to go to a conference in NYC with the professor he’s been working with, but only hotel will be covered, he will have to pay for transportation himself.

  Solution 1: he can buy a flight ticket and fly to NYC

  Pro: meet people, opportunity to learn, more time to be prepared for presentation

  Con: expensive

  Solution 2: take the train to NYC

  Pro: save some money

Con: train ride takes one day, he will miss an important class

2011.6.25ML

5

女生要展出的畫忘在家里了,但今天晚上就要展出,且她的朋友要來看,所以想今晚取來,但是今晚她又要review physical test, 沒時間。第二個解決方案是可以讓她媽媽送來,但是媽媽明天才有空送來,今晚她的朋友就要來看。

2014.7.26NA

5. The woman plans to go home during the winterbreak, however the ticket is so expensive and she hasn't boughtone.

  two solutions: 1. take bus. cheap but 8-hour trip very painful. 2. take 3 am flight. but may interrupt their parents'sleep and inconvenient for them to pick up her.

2014.2.28NA  

S5女生剛剛搬家要開暖房聚會,得收拾屋子。但明早她約了朋友去參觀博物館,要耽擱一天,發生了沖突。男生建議可以今晚收拾房間,但女生擔心明天逛博物館會累,或者可以不去博物館,但女生擔心朋友不高興,而且展覽機會難得。

2014.4.5NA  

S5

The girl is on her way to buy groceries for the party tonight. She suddenly remembered that there will be a chemistry review session in 10 minutes. Option 1: go to the sessions, but feel bad because she has promised her roommates and they are going to cook. Option 2: leave early at the session to buy groceries. But there's a quiz next week. She's worried that she won't pass.

2014.4.12NA  

口語五:                          

版本一:男生想去參加一個電影鑒賞會,但是那天晚上他cousin要來,他要和他在餐廳吃飯,給他介紹學校的情況。他有兩個選擇,女孩說她可以陪他cousin吃飯,介紹學校情況,因為她天天晚上都在餐廳吃飯,男孩說讓一個不同的人介紹學校確實好,但是他cousin有些害羞,他有點擔心他會感覺不舒服,另外一個辦法是不去看電影,以后再看,但是他又非常想參加后面的討論會。女生讓他決定好了告訴她

版本二:

Problem

The girl attended the rehearsal of a school play, the rehearsal is time-consuming. She is too busy to take many classes and not doing well in study. She does not know what to do. 

 

Solutions 

1. Drop out of play and focus on study. 

Con: Her major is theater. Attending rehearsal helps her progress. If she quite, it may make trouble for her professor to find someone to replace her and the professor may be angry with her. 

2. Decrease the number of classes, take it next semester. 

Con: She has taken the course for 3 weeks and put in so much work in that class. It is a required course. If she drops the class this semester, she has  to take it next semester.

2012.2.18NA2011.11.26ML/2009.9.11NA

S5

首先, 一個男人說, he works in the bookstore in college. His job is to carry heavy box which contains books. However, last week he went to help his friend to move to the new apartment. He injured himself. Doctor said that he cant carry heavy things for a month. So he went back to talk to his boss, his boss offered him a job to be a cashier in bookstore, however, the schedule for cashier only opens in the morning. he has a physic group study at that time. The physic group is important to him coz he improved grade OOXX. so he went to find a dish washer job in cafeteria which fits his schedule. however, if he takes the job in cafeteria, he wont have the discount to buy books in bookstore, which saved him a lot every semester....

所以最后他還是沒結論...

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口語五 :女生要組織一場舞會organize a school dance,請了個著名樂隊band在舞會上演出。但該樂隊因當晚有另一場演出show,他們忙不過來they can't play for the dance show,取消canceled了這次演出。

女生自己說出兩個方案:1、請另外一個樂隊來表演find another band。但女生說其它樂隊沒這個樂隊受歡迎enjoy。怕觀眾可能會不喜歡。2、還是請這個樂隊,但延期舉辦舞會reschedule the dance to next week。但如推遲一周的話,就臨近期末考試final exam了。到那時,學生已在忙著準備期末考試了,同學可能沒時間來參加舞會了。

2012.12.8ML/2010.9.24NA

Task5:

男生的band需要找新的場地訓練,一個選擇是租music studio,但是很貴,第二是music building還是什么,時間上有問題,白天不能練習,晚上也不能練習太晚。。。

  解析:

  問題:男生的band需要找新的場地訓練。

  解決一:rent a music studio

  解決二:practice in the music building

答題:陳述問題及兩個解決方案之后,可以選擇第一個方案,因為在music building里面練習時間很短,并且music studio的費用問題可以很簡單地通過成員part-time job來搞定,不用擔心經費問題。

2013.4.27NA

5 
The boy was waiting for Greg at the student center to return the sociology book he borrowed for tomorrow's test. But Greg was in the library and forgot. Since the boy got a doctor's appointment and needed to leave campus soon, he had to figure a way to return the book, as Greg might need it for the test.
1. The boy can return to campus after a couple of hours and return the book, but Greg might need it before that.
2. The girl he was talking to can help him return the book to Greg in the library, but this may require her to walk across campus and back.

2011.12.18ML

5.manproblem是自己要寫一個paper所以要看一本Mystery Novel。但是學校的bookstore關門了。有兩個solution

-第一個,男生說自己打了很多電話去找這本書,在一家店找到了,但是要take him couple of hours to get there.而且男生可能會Miss自己的一些課

-第二個,男生說他去年也讀過一本mystery novel但是他不喜歡這本書,而且他沒有理解透

2009.9.19NA

口語五:                          

一個singing group 要舉辦了

男的原本要弄個announcement on newspaper 讓跟多人來  但是他忘記了  錯過deadline

女的說那改期吧  男的說 那個music court很難book 改期可能就要另找location

女的說那貼海報宣傳吧   男的說考慮一下

2010.1.30NA 

5

一個女生的筆記本電腦壞了,修不好.里面有期末考試的復習文件.

兩個建議:

一個選擇是rent電腦.但是她覺得太貴了不值.

另一個選擇是和roommate共用,就是需要arrange the schedule.問你推薦哪個建議?

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口語五,女生的問題是她的音樂劇明天首映但主演病了,她可以找人來替,但是擔心這個人會覺得太緊張而演不好,也可以考慮把音樂劇推遲到下周,但這樣觀眾會覺得很失望。

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

5

一個女生show優越,說老師給他extra week to finish his research paper,  he do not know what to do.

1 solution is to live with parents ,which is two hour away from the campus and hard to get the school resource 而且他們妹妹們要挑逗他說話,distracting her

2live near the campus, 但是房租好貴。

我認為第二個好,錢什么的都是浮云啊,學習最重要的啊。

2012.10.19ML2010.6.13ML

Task 5

男生定錯機票have a physics test on that day, two solutions, one is to change the flight, charge $150 fee, another is to ask the prof to change the date of exam, only Tuesday is available, but have another two exams on that day, don't sure if he will be ready for the three exams.

2011.3.19NA/2012.12.2ML /2013.3.19NA

Task5:

【學生困難】:女生要在周末組織一個戶外音樂節outdoor music festivalweather forecast卻說周末可能會下雨,女生擔心活動沒辦法按時舉行。

【解決方案】:男生兩個建議:一、postpone到下周末。但是女生怕請來的學生樂隊student band players會有人無法出席,他們下周末可能有其他plan了。二、就這個周末,雨勢不大shower,在雨中進行,因為有可能只下一會雨,天氣還是好的,這樣也很特別,女生說怕大家開始看到窗外在下雨就不想來看了。就在窗口看而不買票,她希望提供的是現場的音樂享受。 第五題,學生對話,說因為天氣原因,一個演唱會就收到影響

     男生給出兩個建議

2014.9.27NA 

Task5:

problem: the woman is planning to move out of campus and she has found an apartment to share with her original roommate, but the apartment is too expensive and she can not afford it. Solution1: ask her roommate to find someone new to share with her. Con: difficult to find a new partner for the roomate with such limited period of time. solution2: get a part-time job in the restarant. con: time- consuming, she may not have enough time to study or socialize with her friends.

2014.11.29ML

5.conversation: 女生向男生訴苦

女的ankle soccer時候break了。不能開車,但是女的還得在高中和其他地方教書。男的問那可怎么辦。女的說可以打車啊,但是女的最近沒那么多現錢。男的問就沒人接你嗎。女的說有啊,我的朋友,但是我不想麻煩她,況且我教課的一個小時我的朋友還得在那里等著我啊,她說她可以去咖啡館學習,但是還是不太妥當。男的回答到:哎呀,她是你的朋友嘛,朋友不就是應該互相幫忙嗎,而且是你朋友主動提出來的。

Questionexplain what happened and state which solution you recommend and explain why.

2013.9.28NA 

Task5:

一男大學生在computer lab(機房)門口遇上一女生,聊天,男生說他是什么系的學生經常要寫paper,不過因為沒電腦所以經常在computer lab寫,但是下一年他就住校外了,再來校內的computer lab就很不方便了。他想買一臺laptop,但是很貴他買不起,有兩個方案,第一是在圖書館work extra shift,每周多干五小時活;這聽起來挺好,不過他說他很忙害怕學習受到影響。第二是他存了一筆小錢想和幾個朋友寒假去NYC玩兒,他可以拿出那些錢出來去買laptop然后寒假就在他宿舍里呆著。

2011.10.14NA

5

女生說父母來參加他的畢業典禮,遇到了麻煩:他們從比較遠的地方來需要找地方住下,但學校附近的hotelbook滿了。 Solu1:去她的公寓住,但她的公寓非常小,需要rearrange,她要睡沙發了。 Solu2:去遠一點的hotel住,但缺點是離學校開車20分鐘, 需要租車,成本比較高。

2013.10.25NA

口語五:聽力,一男一女discussing about 女的的problem, 她早上總是錯過吃早餐,因為她起不來。她的課在早上8點,她總是趕在提前剛好的時間起床,所以沒能時間吃早餐。 男的建議她是不是可以買些零食在room里,不用cook的那種,女的說不行,因為她平時錯過早餐所以大概只吃2餐,現在再加上一餐雖然是零食,但是still cost她一些錢,不行!然后又自己建議其實她可以swith到另一個在上午晚一點才上的課程。還是同一個professor teach的。

要求總結女的問題以及solution

2013.10.19NA

口語五:男的遇到問題,在公共學校的一門課有15個人,人太多,他不到老師的有效反饋,決定退課,他自己給自己提了兩個solutions,一個是換到晚上,人少,但是晚上他可能有作業,課什么的,二是到暑假再選,但暑假他已經有兩門課了,可能三門太多了

2013.12.28ML   

口語五,學生把車鑰匙留在車里了,書也鎖在里面了,沒書就沒辦法上課,兩個建議:一,找一個locksmith來開鎖,但這樣很貴;二,向她父母要extra key,但要一兩天時間才能送來。

2014.6.28NA

Task5:

問題女生在圖書館寫歷史paper被人打擾。

  方法一:跟圖書管理員report.但是害怕被狀告人的mad,或者in trouble

方法二:換地方。但是她所在的區域有所需書籍,換地方版書籍很麻煩。

2014.8.30NA

TASK5

5. Conversation

 對話中的女生遇到了困難。她說自己明年畢業,有一個強制的外語要學習才能畢業。但她之后一學期會非常忙,所以在暑假,她選了自己喜歡的Russian online course。可是注冊的人不夠,被cancelled了。

 現在能夠有的兩個選擇:

1)選擇在校內上的on-campusRussian課。因為Russian是她喜歡的,這樣她就要在學校待上一個暑假了。不能夠回去看自己從中國工作回來的姐姐。

2)選擇其他的網上外語課程,西班牙語。但是她不喜歡,可是如果上網上課程她就可以回去和她姐姐見面了。

2014.9.6NA

TASK5

5.一個男生和女生討論spring break,男生要去蒙特利爾Montréal,但是不能afford train ticket.他給女生說但我有兩個option: 1. To work extra horse in the next week, maybe another 10 hours to earn enough money,然后女生說哎呀很tough,因為很多exams are coming. 2. To sell his guitar.他兩年前買了吉他但一直都沒有彈,而且是個很nice 的吉他。那個女生說,是還可以,但是there’s no guitar any more…

2014.9.27NA

5,學生論文不及格,老師讓重寫,但是他又要參加家庭聚會。

2014.10.17NA

Task5;

Reading:

Reactance: 人們都很重視自己的freedom。 因此當自己的行為被limited and自由受限by some rules and regulations時,人們嘗試去逃脫這種限制。很多adults and children’s behavior are results of the urge to 重獲 freedom. “Reactance” indicates people’s desire to reestablish freedom and break away from(具體的詞組不是break away from,但意思一致) the control.

Listening:

兩個例子可以驗證reactance的現象:1. Imagine a child, who used to play very happily on the playground, having a lot of fun, 但是突然有一天his parents don’t allow him to play on that playground again。小孩會感到很upset,于是他會sneak to the playground and play despite his parents’ rule. 2. A town recently ban on a kind of soap because it’s harmful to the environment. 但是這個ban 并沒有降低the soap’s ability to clean things.因此人們會感到很upset”why can’t I choose any type of soaps that I want?”因此人們會attempt to buy a large number of this kind of soaps, a lot more than they used to do, 盡管town會限制他們做這件事。

2014.11.8NA  

5. Impression management:

Reading: We often control or manage their impression unconsciously in order to convey information to influence how other people perceive us. 這種impression既可以是外表也可以是自己的行為。

Listening: 1.When a student wants to do a presentation, you would see him more formally dressed. Even before he starts, you can feel that he is taking the presentation very seriously and is very responsible. 2. 教授舉了個自己的例子,校長第二天想take這個professorride to school. Right before the day when I will take the ride, I took the trash out of the back of my car and even had my car washed. And when the president got in my car, I changed my radio music into classical music. But I even don’t like classical music.

2014.11.29NA  

5.conversation: 女生向男生訴苦

女的ankle soccer時候break了。不能開車,但是女的還得在高中和其他地方教書。男的問那可怎么辦。女的說可以打車啊,但是女的最近沒那么多現錢。男的問就沒人接你嗎。女的說有啊,我的朋友,但是我不想麻煩她,況且我教課的一個小時我的朋友還得在那里等著我啊,她說她可以去咖啡館學習,但是還是不太妥當。男的回答到:哎呀,她是你的朋友嘛,朋友不就是應該互相幫忙嗎,而且是你朋友主動提出來的。

Questionexplain what happened and state which solution you recommend and explain why.

2014.12.19NA  

5. Girl’s problem: She’s going to give a presentation on her studying-abroad experience, but her laptop crashed and she was unable to show the audience her pictures.

Possible solutions:

1) She has an album book containing some of her pictures taken during her studying abroad, she could pass the book to her audience

- In this way audience will be able to see her photos

- Not all pictures she wants to show are included in the book

- but there are a lot of audience, she’s not sure everyone will be able to see it

2) Her pictures are still in her camera and the camera is in her parents’ house. She could go there to get the camera, and show her audience through the camera.

- She has the time to go to her parents’ house to pick up the camera and come back before the presentation

- But she’s going to use the time to practice her presentation, hushing to her parents’ house will take up the time

2013.6.8NA

5

Problem: his landlord is going to sell the house and there's a buyer who's eager to buy it, he has only a bit over one week to move

  Solution 1: a friend of his is looking for a roommate near his university

  Pro: /

  Con: he can't concentrate on his study

  Solution 2: he can live with his parents

  Pro:/

Con: too far away

2013.6.22NA

5

manroommate要搬到in campus,所以他要找一個新室友。倆solution,一個是前室友的朋友,人不錯但是有些messy。第二個是學校里貼advertisement。問你支持哪個,為啥。

2013.11.22NA

口語五:                              

Problem:The man was supposed to go to the seaside with friends,but Mary asked him to go help her to move on a short notice because she has to move out by tomorrow. Solution 1:Find someone replace him.Pro:/ Con:It might not work at this last minute.                    

Solution 2:Cancel his appointment with his friends. Pro:/ Con:He has been planning to go for long,and later the weather will turn cold,and they can't go to the beach anymore.

2011.5.28NA

版本一:【1個問題】A  boy needs to read a novel in order to write a paper .However, the library on campus is closed.

2個建議】【1.To go to anther library .But its too far away. lt will

cost a lot time ,and the student will miss some interesting courses.

2.To read another book. However ,the student doesnt like  the book.                                      版本二:【1個問題】他想買一本對她完成assignment有用而且是剛出版的書,但學校的書店要關1個星期,所以打電話問其它地方,但只有1個離學校很遠的地方有這本書而且只答應給他hold明天一天,而明天他又有課。

2個建議】

1.如果有另外的書同樣可以替代這本書,那就用另一本易獲得的書,但男的認為新的可以讓他的assignment 更新穎。【2.開車去取那本新書,但他又認為開車去這么遠就為了新穎有可能不值得

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

學生會要在期末考試的study break 辦個party 讓大家放松一下,結果請的樂隊主唱病能來演出,option:要么放磁帶的音樂,但是沒氣氛,要么往后推遲幾天,但有可能大家考完就走

【學生困難】:

The man wants to hold a party before the final exams to make students get away from books and relieve stress, but the invited band will not available now because lead singer of the band is sick.

【解決方案】:

To cope with this problem, the man faces two possible solutions. First, CDs can be played in the party instead of the live performance by the band. Second, the party can be postponed before the final exam.

【問題】:

Briefly summarize the problem and two possible solutions. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why.

2013.1.18NA

5男生參加校emergency response team,需要大量訓練以達到國家標準,沒有時間做literature reading,為此苦惱不已。女生給出兩個解決辦法:1. 放棄這個隊明年再重新加入。男生說不行,如果這樣,他隊內位置會被別人取代。2. director談,要求用兩學期而非一學期完成訓練。

2013.12.20NA

口語五:the boy feels sick and is not sure if he should take the trip to the mountain or not

口語第六題

2013.7.14ML

TASK6

Two ways of keeping eggs moist:

1lay the eggs below water. e.g. frogs lay their eggs underwater and let the liquid permeate the eggs to keep them moist

2lay eggs with special protecting structures. eg: snakes eggs have a tough shell structure that helps maintain the moisture

2012.9.8ML 

Task 6

【講課要點】:盡管wildfire會給動物造成damage, 但是也可以帶來好處。

1. 能給動物提供棲息地,比如woodpecker在燒過的樹洞里筑巢;

2. renew vegetation, 把舊的植物wipe out, 給新的植物生長帶來條件,新的植物更nutritious, which are more attractive to deer.

2011.3.11NA 

task6:

【講座主題】生物學的。說在一個tropical rainforest里面生活animal都在canopy上飛 tree to tree 動物們為了survive獨居,領地侵犯等,進化出兩種behavior

 

  【相關例子】第一種是searching food alone, individually因為這個地方的食物很分散,group一起找食物,就會不夠吃。各自找會有better chance 找到更多吃的。給了一例子 :猩猩ape 都自己找食物。

 

  第二種是make sounds保護自己的領地。穿過厚厚的葉子樹來讓別的兄弟知道要不然在樹上飛啊飛的就會撞一起然后受傷,給了一個例子:說一種猴子 monkey 他們就大叫,來讓不小心進入其領地的動物知道這是他的地盤

2009.8.2ML/2008.1.18NA 

S6

說有時候動物吃的東西不是我們想象中的東西,有時候會吃點亂七八糟的東西,比如說earth or soil.他們吃這些東西是有作用的。然后舉兩個鳥的例子。一個是R鳥,吃soil是為了磨碎食物,這樣help digestion, 說因為鳥沒有牙吖,所以吃soil可以幫助把大的食物,esp large seeds, 磨成small pieces.另一個是鸚鵡Parrot,吃soil可以nutralize失誤中的poison,這樣就不會get sick

2011.11.20ML 

口語六:講unhatched eggs communication 對他們survival的重要性,一是保證它們同時破殼,不被left behind,二是讓他們的媽媽能夠發現他們,舉了鱷魚的例子,鱷魚的卵被heavy mugs cover著,要被他們的媽媽發現才能存活下去。

2010.8.13NA 

口語六:                          

反正說的是FARMER 怎么給CROPS從土里提供氮養啥的。有倆方法,我只聽到一個 - = 具體說那一個我都沒聽全啊

2013.3.22NA

6:restricted codes,就是same group的人可以用很少的話語就可以讓彼此意會。第一方面是SHARE same pro knowledge的人用這個。舉了醫生例子,醫生間用很少的的話就可以解釋,但是醫生和病人間需要更多細節才能明白。第二個沒聽見走神了。例子是出去picnic食物被goat吃了,以后大家提起簡單地提起goat, picnic就笑,很快就明白意思。

2014.8.9NA     

6

版本1 這個lecture講了動物儲存食物 (hoarding)的兩種不同方式

1all food in one location,但是這就要求動物必須能夠守住這些食物,用physical prevention defense. 比如Squirrel, 他們會把所有食物都藏帶一個地方,但是如果有 birds或者其他都無來搶的時候他們就會把這些掠食者趕走, drive them away

2disperse, divide up food and save in different locations, 但是這要求動物必須記性特別好(good memory)記的食物都放在那些地方了.比如 Rat in desert, 它們把食物藏在hundreds of locations,但是他們記性好,都記得這些locations在哪里

版本2 :心理學——generalizing

閱讀部分: 在學習語言的過程中,兒童很容易把一個詞的意思理解為僅僅是用來表示一個特定的物體(one specific object),隨著年齡的增長,兒童能逐漸理解一個單詞不僅能用來描述一件物品,而是可以用來表示某一類物品。這種現象叫做歸納(generalizing)。

聽力部分:教授的兒子三歲時,他有一個玩具火車,爸爸媽媽就教給兒子這個東西叫做“train”。有一天爸媽帶著兒子出去玩,途徑火車站,爸爸就指著火車說這是“train”,當時兒子就顯得非常不理解(upset and confused)。而到兒子四歲時,他就能夠正確使用“train”這個詞了,并且能明白這個詞不僅僅能夠表示他的玩具火車,還能用來表示火車站里真正的火車。

問:用教授給出的例子解釋什么是generalizing

2013.5.26ML

Task 6

  The professor talks about how animals that doesn’t live underwater do to stay under the water. The first way is to reduce movement in order to save oxygen. For example, alligators hunt under water by staying very still, basically no movement. In doing so, it can cut down heart rate, therefore cut down the need for more oxygen. The second way is to minimize the time spent under water. For example, brown pelican dives down to catch fish in the water. It doesn’t go to deep, and it has air sacks that open when in the water. That will help the pelican to get back to the surface as fast as possible for oxygen.

2011.2.12ML2009.10.10ML

顧客買東西一般看產品的兩種cues,一種是內在的,由產品自身的質決定,比如果汁好喝所以買,一種是外在的,由產品的外在包裝決定,比如果汁的瓶子漂,并且商標fancy,所以買。

In the lecture the professor talks about two cues to judge the qualities of products by consumer. The first clue is the intrinsic cue which means the customers judge the products qualities by their physical characteristic, such as color, texture, sizes. For example, food, customers will think it has good qualities if it has good taste. The opposite cue is the extrinsic cue; the customers don’t judge the product quality by physical characteristics. For example, juice, if the bottle of juice is a good looking glass bottle and has good label, consumers think it has good quality. So products are evaluated by external packs but not the taste of the juice itself.

2014.7.26NA

6. two ways for whales to use sounds to survive in the deep ocean. First, navigate. Hear the refection from objects so that wholes can get right direction. Second obtain food. Since whole are in group, one can call other whales if it find any fish.

2009.10.25ML/2007.6.24ML

口語六:教授講商品product要有utility,顧客才會購買。two types utilities1utility of form形態效用:意思是產品要滿足人們的特殊需求have features customers need,人們才會買。例:人們要買防寒服winter coats made of fabric material and feather是因為冬天要保暖keep worm、防雨be waterproof2utility of place地點效用:意思是要在正確的地點銷售產品the product should be at the place where customers need it。例:防寒服winter coats,如果在Alaska where is very cold一定好賣,因為那里的人非常需要防寒服。如果在熱帶島嶼tropic island就沒人買,那里的人根本用不著防寒服。

2010.3.13ML

6

【講課要點】:During long distance travel, animals navigate themselves by two ways

方法1by sight:舉例:美國一Ducks(野鴨)fly at night. Stars help them to distinguish their own flying way. They can distinguish different groups of stars.

方法2by smell: For example, Salmons(大馬哈魚)track a unique scent released by plants or something in the river/stream to get to游回它們出生地sites to 產卵lay eggs. Every stream has its unique scent because of the chemicals released by soil and plant.

2011.12.18ML

6.planningdrawbacks

-plan excessively, too detailed

example: professor去年做了一個很詳細的daily plan,安排好她什么時候該備課,寫essay,鍛煉 etc. 但是她沒辦法完成,所以覺得很frustrated

-有很多干擾,人們會把事情想簡單

example: professor說自己以前答應過一個朋友幫他看paper, 她本來以外一個周末就可以搞定,但是其實take more time than she expected。她還有去上網查相關的資料,因為她不熟悉這個topic.

2009.9.19NA

口語六:                          

negative ideation

課堂例子

教授很喜歡chocolate bar但吃太多不好

后來就把它想象成是泥做的來reduce the temptation

2008.9.28ML/2007.8.17ML

S6

講座講: 廣告商經常利用廣告帶給觀眾的emotions 來促進產品銷量,

  第一種方式: Produce positive emotions

  eg: 一種shampoo 廣告, 一個baby 用這種shampoo, 笑得好甜, the smiling face relax the mother 消費者,尤其是媽媽們就將使用這種shampoo和自己寶寶和自己愉快的經歷聯系起來,進而購買.

  第二種方式: Produce negative emotions

  eg: 一個man car 在雨天broke down , 他沒有手機,只好在雨中不行前往公用電話廳打電話求助. 觀眾自己就會worry about themselves, they don’t even want to imagine how terrible the situation is, 然后自己就趕快去買了.

2013.12.21ML/2011.3.13ML/2009.9.12ML

口語六,城市溫度比農村高的原因。一個是城市中的機器會釋放各種熱量,比如汽車釋放尾氣和熱量,另外是城市當中黑色的東西更多,更易吸收光并轉化為熱量。比如concrete制成的深色馬路和街道。

2013.3.3ML/2012.10.19NA

6講小動物們都喜歡成群結隊出去玩去保護自己,捕食他們的動物有兩個方法去吃他們。

1 找到一個有著不一樣顏色的小動物,然后定位他,就吃他。例子是memo神馬的 someone in the group will have unique color from others, the predador will go after him

2 他們還會把這些group break up, 然后小動物們緊張了,逃跑了,隊伍就散了,然后捕食者就找一個group 去追神馬啊。

2013.12.14NA

口語六:6. telecommute。教授講到現在的公司為了追求利潤經常會采取telecommute的方式,意即通過emailtelephone工作,而不再到辦公室去上班。之后重點討論了兩個advantage

? 首先,telecommute為公司帶來了很多”overhead cut” ,即辦公經費的開支。通過減少辦公室面積和辦公室的設備,公司節約了很多成本。比如說professor姐姐的公司,上一年要求25%的員工以telecommute的方式工作,結果到了年底節省了half million

? 其次,telecommute留住了以前必定要流失的人才。公司培養一個人才需要花很多的財力人力,而這些人才如果因為計劃外原因流動出公司,會對公司造成極大的損失。Telecommute可以使這些員工即使流動到其他城市或國家也能參與工作,從而保證了工作效率并減少了人才方面帶來的損失。Professor又舉了她姐姐的例子,她姐姐本來要移到Texas去居住,因此不能繼續參與原公司的工作,但公司提出可以讓她以telecommute的方式繼續工作,保障了公司的利益。

2008.5.10ML

口語六:印刷術出現之前的出的出版和閱讀都是不一樣的......

從前的書是手抄本,抄寫員會漏詞、多詞、或者拼錯,導致每本書的內容都不一樣,現在你到書店里去,看見一摞一樣的書肯定內容都是一摸一樣的。從前的書很貴和稀有,你有了一本就會有超多的人到你家里來看,大聲地朗讀出來。現在大家都買得起書啦,你可以一個人靜靜地看。

2014.9.13NA

6

女生的老師組織看play和打工時間沖突1.manager請假,但是上次已經請過一次假了2.professor請假,事后看vcd,但是她喜歡和大家一起看

2013.9.28NA

Task6:

 Psychology!核心是人們做錯事都會想一些explanation,而最常見的explanationattributionjustificationAttribution指的是人犯了錯然后認為是別的東西導致自己犯錯,責任不在自己,又叫excuse。舉例是她作為老師,經常收到學生諸如我鬧鐘壞了這樣的遲到理由,表明他們自己不想遲到。Justification指的是人們確實有意識的做了這件所謂的錯事,但做這件事的出發點是合理的,可被正名的。舉例是她同樣收到過這樣的遲到理由,比如說某人去參加job interview而沒去上課,覺得這個比上課更重要,這樣的explanation就是justification,為自己的行為正名。

2014.11.29ML

6. History of newspaper

19世紀,只有少數人賣報紙,但是現在,大家都讀報紙,為什么呢。

原因一:advance in technology. It is easy for publisher to produce a large quantity of newspaper. Late in 19th century, new technology made the printing process faster.

原因二:less expensive of newspaper. 因為newspaper publishers had other funding. And they are able to sell newspaper at low price. 因為有了廣告,所以可以賣很低的價錢,甚至1 penny

Questionexplain two reasons for the growth in newspaper readership in the late nineteenth century.

2013.12.28ML   

口語六,講如何推斷出ancient climates。教授說可以研究化石,因為氣候會對形成化石的微生物產生影響。舉例,某種有硬殼的shellfish,殼里的鎂含量和sea water temperature有關,溫度高的時候鎂的含量就高。所以就可以通過對比這種礦物質在化石和現在那個地方的shellfish殼里的含量,然后就知道氣候變暖了還是變冷了。

2012.12.1NA 

6

關于migrating animal's characteristics的,

一是這些migrating animal由于要做長途遷徙to reach their destination,會更focus,不會被別的東西easily disturb到,相對來說,local birds一發現food就很瞎亂興奮。。。。。

二是migrating animal tend to move in straight line

例子是migrating shark會用geomagnetism來定位直線移動,而local animal就傾向于瞎亂移動來找食物。。。。。。。

2011.10.14NA

6

講鳥類遷徙之前都會做一定的調整和改變,分兩方面:1body change:長途飛行需要大量能量,為了減少停下來的次數,會提前儲存能量,吃多點存脂肪。2,習慣的改變:為了應對路上碰到的敵人,一些獨來獨往的鳥會開始social,結成group一起飛,比較安全。

2013.10.25NA

口語六:biological 的課程

一群群居的動物,易感染疾病,以一個動物好像叫ann的為例, 說明他們如何去defense會感染疾病。

1)。。。。。。sorry 腦子短路。。。。。。忘了。。。

2)他們會經常自我清潔,通過自我清潔可以避免感染。

要求概括一下課堂的內容,表述他們如何去defense的。

2013.10.19NA

口語六

publicity 相對 advertising 的優點,一是更便宜,比如游戲廠商在電腦雜志上發表文章比廣告便宜,二是可信度更高,電腦雜志如果描述一下那個電腦游戲,購買者更容易接受,相對于廣告

2014.2.28NA  

S6telecommute的好處,一個更加綠色環保,不用開車,減少空氣污染,另一方面給鄉村居民提供工作機會,大公司也可以招收遠距離的鄉村居民。

2014.4.5NA  

S6

How do consumers reduce risks when purchasing?

  (1) do a thorough research. Eg. If you want to buy a computer, you can search online to see which manufacture is better and see the reviews of other buyers.

(2) stay loyal to one brand or company. Eg. If you have bought a car that functioned well and lasted long, you want to stay with this company next time.

2014.4.12NA                                               

版本一:為什么有的事情會記得比別的事情清楚。兩個原因,第一是如果你對這個事情預先有所了解,你就會記得比其他事情清楚,事后也更容易回憶起來。比如你 去參加一個古典音樂會,如果你對古典音樂有比較多的了解,一年后讓你回憶這個音樂會,你就很容易記起很多它的細節,相反你可能什么也想不起來。第二個原因 是某些事物可能和其他的事物有比較大的區別,這些不同的事物更容易被記住,比如你去上大學里的一節大課,一年后讓你回憶,你可能記起來的是那個個子非常高 的男生,或是非常聰明的一個女孩。    

版本二:

Film makers can choose two angles of camera to build characters images. 

1: low angle, just like children look up to adults. It makes a character look really huge and powerful. For example, using low angles to make Queen Victoria look more prestigious. 2: high angle, put the character in a big environment, and make character look small and weak. For example, shooting a man lost in a vast desert from high angle makes the character look hopeless and weak.

2014.6.28NA

Task6:

dinner為例子闡述兩種theater對觀眾的不同。在theater里,一種是player表現的觀眾不存在,比如在吃飯,那就認認真真在吃飯,和下面沒交流。一種是styleplayer意識到觀眾的存在,還是比如吃飯,player可能問下面觀眾food smell good? 甚至invite audience to join them…"

2014.8.30NA

TASK6

6.關于living in group的不足

 兩個群居的不足和例子:

1)Visible to predators and easy to be captured. 單獨的時候就不會這樣。比如沙丁魚,當他們一直單獨行動的時候,就不容易被發現然后被吃。但是當他們成群的出現,就會有鯊魚捕食他們。

2)Carrying the young. 很多生活在一起,不容易找到自己的小孩。比如成百上千的bats蝙蝠生活在洞里,當他們出去捕獵回來想給自己的小孩喂食的時候,找不到。可能給別的小孩喂食,而自己的卻沒被喂到。

2014.9.6NA

TASK6

6.Why companies will change their product packaging.

1.In response to technology. 技術發展會有new material出現,舉了牛奶的例子,牛奶以前是裝在glass bottle賣,后來技術發展,出現了塑料,于是牛奶現在裝載plastic box里面賣。

2.為了更好與其他公司競爭。比如會改變包裝的size。又是牛奶,其他公司已經改變了自己juice啊軟飲料啊的包裝,變成portable size,讓人民可以再車里啊路上喝,于是牛奶也變了,由以前的large bottle變為現在這樣。

2014.9.27NA

6animal foraging.

2014.10.17NA

Task6;

歷史課

以前early human beings是去hunt wild animal for meat,但是大概10000年前開始馴化(domesticatecontrol animals. The domestication of animals有很多benefits,下面我們來說一下:1. The domestication of animals will provide consistent and reliable source of meat. Early people去打獵,有時打得到,但often打不到獵,而把animal養在身邊可以隨時隨地有吃的,舉了goat山羊的例子,山羊是最早被馴化的動物。Goats can be easily controlled and can be organized by the heard and move with the people。因此這個source非常reliable2. The domestication of animals will supply a variety of food other than meat. 又舉了山羊的例子,goats produce milk. People can collect milk and drink. Also people can process milk and make it into yoghurt and cheese.

2014.11.8NA  

6. Environmental science:

我們一直在尋找保護環境最好的方式,但有一種就是Moral suasion道德勸告,it means to appeal to people’s moral sense of duty, their civic duty, to make people voluntarily to protect the environment.教授說有兩個例子,1. 比如Smokey the Bear(全班笑。這個查了一下背景資料:就是1944年美國的一個防止森林火災的propaganda標志),a bear dressed like a man, 舉著標語說“please don’t hurt my animal friends” or “please don’t start forest fire”. People will become sensitive to it and their awareness to protect the environment will be promoted.2. recycle campaign. People often recycle.但是怎樣保證high compliance,就需要moral suasion,告訴你這樣做是正確的。When you see your neighbors are recycling, you will follow what they do.

2014.11.29NA  

6. History of newspaper

19世紀,只有少數人賣報紙,但是現在,大家都讀報紙,為什么呢。

原因一:advance in technology. It is easy for publisher to produce a large quantity of newspaper. Late in 19th century, new technology made the printing process faster.

原因二:less expensive of newspaper. 因為newspaper publishers had other funding. And they are able to sell newspaper at low price. 因為有了廣告,所以可以賣很低的價錢,甚至1 penny

Questionexplain two reasons for the growth in newspaper readership in the late nineteenth century.

2014.12.19NA  

6. Lecture: Two advantages about Beta Testing method using in business

A beta test is a testing that gives the intended audience some samples to try the product out.

1) Getting feedback from the customers

The producer can get feedback from the customers who try the product out, so that they will know what aspect they didn’t do well. Take a camera for example, the camera company may give some professional photographers samples to test how well the new camera work. If after the testing the photographers report the flash doesn’t work well because it produces extra light, the company will know they need to work on the flash to make it more desirable.

2) Providing free advertisement

If the testing audience think the new product is satisfactory, they will have a positive evaluation about it and tell others how well the product is. If it’s not perfect at first and the company spends effort to fix it, they usually have a better evaluation. Take the camera. After the company fixes the flash, the photographers will think the camera is now very good, and they will tell other photographers about the camera, encouraging others to be willing to buy

2013.6.8NA

6

Animal adaptions

  physical adaption

  舉例:動物表皮黑色,and it can absorb more sunlight for the heat to get into the body

  habit adaption

  舉例:動物站在冰塊上不用兩只腳,只用腳后跟減少和冰接觸的面積

2013.6.22NA

6

講廣告讓受眾接受產品的兩個方法,一個是在合適的時間讓受眾看到,舉的例子是玩具車的廣告要在孩子們喜歡的電視節目的時間段播出,第二個好像是要和實際的產品結合(記不清了),舉得例子似乎是他女兒和朋友們有個小玩具,然后最近要有關于這個玩具的節目上映了。

2013.11.22NA

口語六: 2 mechanisms to make it hard for the predators to predict the next behavior of the animals.                 

Example 1Squid don't go straight,and the speed is unsteady,they choose to move in a zigzag pattern which makes it extremely difficult for the predators to anticipate its behavior.                     

Example 2:Squid can change into different colors,they can change from pink to blue then to white,for instance,the predators stares at something pink but all of a sudden it change into blue,it confuses the predators thus gives the squid a chance to escape.

2009.11.14ML/2008.3.29NA

口語六:動物保護自己的兩種方式:裝得對侵犯者很危險;直接裝死。以蛇為例:狐貍來冒犯蛇,蛇就裝得比實際危險,嚇跑了狐貍;遇到其他的某些入侵者,蛇可能裝死,入侵者因此失去興趣。


2013.12.20NA

口語六:土地的sault accumulation問題,Solution 1; pipe把多余的水引走,S2; 種植resistantcrop, 這些crop對于鹽有抵抗力

2013.1.18NA

6商品價格與需求成反比關系。商品價格升高,需要下降,比如咖啡。但有例外,如面包。面包在18世紀的英國是最便宜的主食。相比肉而言,無論面包怎么貴 需求量都不會下降。價格上漲反而會使得更多的人去買面包。

2013.1.26NA

6

動物眼睛撲捉獵物的兩個feature,一個能夠分辨顏色,另外一個是穿透力,能通過branch看到一些東東。

2013.4.6NA  

6

terminfomercial。就是在電視上的長的商品廣告,telephone number都有顯示在屏幕上那種兩個advantages1,有足夠的時間介紹所有feature

example:賣home exercise machine. infomercial里可以介紹他的各種使用方式讓更多人購買,但如果是short commercial就沒有足夠的時間。2,因為viewers是可以在廣告過程中就打電話進來購買,這樣可以直觀的告訴商家這個廣告是不是有效。example:還是那個machine,如果很少人在廣告時打電話進來的話,廠家就可以明確地知道這款廣告不是那么奏效,然后就可以修改以賣出更多的商品。

2013.5.17NA

口語六:動物如何在睡覺時躲避捕食者襲擊?兩種方法。一是利用環境警告,比如lizard在睡覺時選擇大樹的長枝盡頭這樣敵人靠近樹枝搖晃發出警告;而是自己大腦部分休息,比如一種鴨子可以睡覺時睜一只眼閉一只眼以監視敵人

2013.11.9NA

口語六:森林大火一般對生物有harmful的影響。比如很多動物在大火中會快速遷徙。但是森林大火對生物也有時候beneficial。舉了兩個例子:第一個例子森林大火對predator比較有利。更有利于他們抓住prey。比如火雞。火雞在森林大火中可開心了。他們可以輕而易舉地看到prey。他們的prey會快速flee,所以火雞可以快速抓到他們的獵物insects,而不用苦苦地peck the ground to look for the insects。第二個例子是beetlesBeetles喜歡森林大火因為他們喜歡的樹平時會分泌毒素。Beetles無法在樹上生存。但是大火把樹燒死后Beetle就可以盡情地在上面產卵和撫養后代。

2013.12.6NA

口語六:Two reasons for plants to avoid sunlight.

       Example 1:Some plants need to cling to something in order to get its moisture and nurients and etc.these places are often in shades,for example vine.

       Example 2:Some plants need to conserve moisture,intense exposure to the sun would decrease the moisture,like bean plant.

2014.1.25NA  

6保留住顧客的strategy

  (1)設立rewards program,給打折和優惠,比如:買10個三明治送一個免費的三明治

(2)product design。公司的產品要配套使用,比如:電子游戲公司的游戲機和游戲光盤只能配套用

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